The new man-made molecules are called XNAs, and they’re uncannily similar to the genetic instructions for life found in every living thing on earth.
These strands of synthetic polymers can store, copy, and pass on genetic information the way DNA does. And they can even be evolved in the laboratory.
By baring these hallmarks of life, the lab-made variants could help researchers develop better drugs and therapeutic nanotechnologies.
DNA and RNA consist of 4 nucleic acid bases – the chemical letters A, G, C, and T – that run along a backbone of phosphates and sugars. DNA uses deoxyribose sugars, while RNA uses ribose.
With XNA, those sugars are replaced by a different sugar – one of 6 alternatives, including hexitol, threose, and arabinose. The 6 resulting molecules are known as xeno-nucleic acids (”xeno” is Greek for “foreign”).
Threose is a four-carbon monosaccharide or carbohydrate with molecular formula C4H8O4. It has a terminal aldehyde group rather than a ketone in its linear chain, and so is considered part of the aldose family of monosaccharides. The threose name can be used to refer to both the D- and L-stereoisomers, and more generally to the racemic mixture (D/L-, equal parts D- and L-) as well as to the more generic threose structure (absolute stereochemistry unspecified).
Artificial gene synthesis is the process of synthesizing a gene in vitro without the need for initial template DNA samples. The main method is currently by oligonucleotide synthesis (also used for other applications) from digital genetic sequences and subsequent annealing of the resultant fragments. In contrast, natural DNA replication requires existing DNA templates for synthesizing new DNA.
Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. Synthesis of the first peptide- and protein-coding genes was performed in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham, respectively.
Commercial gene synthesis services are now available from numerous companies worldwide, some of which have built their business model around this task. Current gene synthesis approaches are most often based on a combination of organic chemistry and molecular biological techniques and entire genes may be synthesized "de novo", without the need for precursor template DNA. Gene synthesis has become an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology including heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene therapy and molecular engineering. The synthesis of nucleic acid sequences is often more economical than classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures.
August 11, 2011 – LONDON – Researchers say they have created the first ever animal with artificial information in its genetic code.
The technique, they say, could give biologists “atom-by-atom control” over the molecules in living organisms. One expert the BBC spoke to agrees, saying the technique would be seized upon by “the entire biology community.”
The work by a Cambridge University team, which used nematode worms, appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The worms – from the species Caenorhabditis elegans – are 1mm long, with just a thousand cells in their transparent bodies.
What makes the newly created animals different is that their genetic code has been extended to create biological molecules not known in the natural world.
Genes are the DNA blueprints that enable living organisms to construct their biological machinery, protein molecules, out of strings of simpler building blocks called amino acids.
Just 20 amino acids are used in natural living organisms, assembled in different combinations to make the tens of thousands of different proteins needed to sustain life.
But Sebastian Greiss and Jason Chin have re-engineered the nematode worm’s gene-reading machinery to include a 21st amino acid, not found in nature.
Dr Chin of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (where Francis Crick and James Watson first cracked the structure of DNA) describes the technique as “potentially transformational”: designer proteins could be created that are entirely under the researchers’ control
so they are using alcohol, carbohydrates and monosaccharides that are found in plants/bacteria to create artificial amino acids
THE D FORM L FORM AMINO ACID is tied to my daughters organ reversal
Still don't know much about it but I found that here is the connection on why my daughter is a right handed instead of left handed life form. We are not talking about hands but set up. Almost all of life on earth is set up left sided but my daughter is right sided.
Marathon Oil is near us and they are buying out a whole area near us because of Hexane.
You can see the freeway lights are yellow around the area.
I went to my email and retrieved the articles I sent my daughter
she is having kidney stone trouble I am thinking maybe something to do with food issues.
I had seen a black large stone in my child's closet at one time.
Oddest looking stone. I have to ask my kids to find out which one brought it home and when, it looked like large gravel , much like in this picture ....on one side and it was as though it was cut in half and shiny as hell on the other.
looking just like black glass but no buff marks at all.
doncandea: thanks, I tried the alcohol, DE, and vinegar and it worked a bit thanks
Mar 31, 2015 4:07:25 GMT -5
Lily T: When a chemical corp. states on its Material safety data sheet, "NOT TO BE USED ON HUMANS", research only, everyone must be concerned than to how pharmaceutical corps. are putting all trans retinoic acid and isotretinoin and TTNPB in patents.
Mar 31, 2015 23:41:29 GMT -5
Lily T: These inventors of these retinoid drugs admitted to not knowing the mechanics of how these biological living cells of various species of retinoids known as Vitamin A work. The human body will reject and fight off foreign invaders-comprising the immune sys
Mar 31, 2015 23:44:13 GMT -5
Lily T: Not to be used on humans means do not use these agents on a human being. There are thousands and thousands of patents using these toxic chemicals that alter human genetics forever. The risks do not outweigh the benefits. Too many lies for too long.
Mar 31, 2015 23:45:44 GMT -5
Lily T: When the FDA and pharmaceutical corps. are allowed to violate federal laws such as 21 cfr 201.57 and not properly label a drug with the true side effects and biological testing that is be on a drug pamphlet we have a serious problems.
Mar 31, 2015 23:49:57 GMT -5
Lily T: When physicians ignore a patients symptoms from a drug reaction to cover up for pharmaceutical corps. who are funded by various govt agencies in developing these toxic drugs we have a serious problem. Putting the general population in danger.
Mar 31, 2015 23:52:05 GMT -5
Lily T: Retinoids are chemo drugs made with toxic gases, explosives agents, and nuclear radioactive agents such as tritium. Before trying any drug or any product look up the chemicals from a chemical material safety data sheet, then decide whether to use or not.
Mar 31, 2015 23:55:16 GMT -5
BGP: Research Dr. Ross Andersen, N.D.[br]"I believe,the single most undiagnosed health challenge in the history if the human race is parasites. I realize thats a pretty brave statement, but it is based on his 20 yrs of experience with more than 20,000 patients.TRY
Apr 6, 2015 10:10:45 GMT -5
Fl4sh52: Where have Sky and critt gone? Miss your insight and posts
Apr 27, 2015 14:13:16 GMT -5
Chocket: I am one of the Morgellons CDC test subjects. I am open to any questions. Carrie Chasse email@example.com
May 17, 2015 13:22:42 GMT -5
Aetana: Has anyone tried with Chlorella? it says that this alga helps the body to eliminate metals. There are available pills or powder of Chlorella on the market even "bio" they say.
May 19, 2015 3:50:51 GMT -5
misslilsis: Maybe found something helpful. I now have 3 infected loved ones and found information on a bath in 2Cups borax,1 C h2o2, 1 lb Epson salt,2 drps tea tree oil 1/2 box baking soda. Soak as long as u want , then scrub w sulfur soap. research it
May 25, 2015 11:52:26 GMT -5
misslilsis: trouble loggin in Jennifer Edgerton on Facebook
May 25, 2015 11:53:06 GMT -5
chetmacaroon: Morgellons found to caused by Bartonella infection. http://www.lyme-morgellons.com/
May 27, 2015 9:23:06 GMT -5
nonbeliever: Aetana, Chlorella and Chlorophyll are excellent in reducing systemic toxins. However be prepared for a Herxheimer response if you are suffering from serious fungal overload. I eliminated lots of accumulated intestinal biofilm for about the first week.
Jun 4, 2015 12:17:24 GMT -5
nonbeliever: I was a nonbeliever despite being rejected by the first two doctors that I went to see. I never used the term "crawling sensation" however I think they took their cue when I said "strange sensation" and diagnosed me with DOP from 10' away! Absurd.
Jun 4, 2015 12:23:44 GMT -5
nonbeliever: Enter the age of nanotechnology and high tech medical diagnostic equipment. Yet so few dermatologists will use a mere simple and inexpensive pair of magnifying goggles. Maybe they realize that they're not obligated to cure what they can't see. Suspicious?
Jun 5, 2015 1:36:04 GMT -5
Geranium Clivensis: Well done nonbeliever. We are facing outrageous fraud and mockery.
Jun 27, 2015 11:55:13 GMT -5
threader: The past 2 dermatologists I've seen both were both Morg-literate. That doesn't mean they have many good solutions, but at least there was no demeaning DOP talk. Within a few years doctors who consider Morgs to be DOP will be considered cruel and ignorant.
Jul 20, 2015 18:53:58 GMT -5