The new man-made molecules are called XNAs, and they’re uncannily similar to the genetic instructions for life found in every living thing on earth.
These strands of synthetic polymers can store, copy, and pass on genetic information the way DNA does. And they can even be evolved in the laboratory.
By baring these hallmarks of life, the lab-made variants could help researchers develop better drugs and therapeutic nanotechnologies.
DNA and RNA consist of 4 nucleic acid bases – the chemical letters A, G, C, and T – that run along a backbone of phosphates and sugars. DNA uses deoxyribose sugars, while RNA uses ribose.
With XNA, those sugars are replaced by a different sugar – one of 6 alternatives, including hexitol, threose, and arabinose. The 6 resulting molecules are known as xeno-nucleic acids (”xeno” is Greek for “foreign”).
Threose is a four-carbon monosaccharide or carbohydrate with molecular formula C4H8O4. It has a terminal aldehyde group rather than a ketone in its linear chain, and so is considered part of the aldose family of monosaccharides. The threose name can be used to refer to both the D- and L-stereoisomers, and more generally to the racemic mixture (D/L-, equal parts D- and L-) as well as to the more generic threose structure (absolute stereochemistry unspecified).
Artificial gene synthesis is the process of synthesizing a gene in vitro without the need for initial template DNA samples. The main method is currently by oligonucleotide synthesis (also used for other applications) from digital genetic sequences and subsequent annealing of the resultant fragments. In contrast, natural DNA replication requires existing DNA templates for synthesizing new DNA.
Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. Synthesis of the first peptide- and protein-coding genes was performed in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham, respectively.
Commercial gene synthesis services are now available from numerous companies worldwide, some of which have built their business model around this task. Current gene synthesis approaches are most often based on a combination of organic chemistry and molecular biological techniques and entire genes may be synthesized "de novo", without the need for precursor template DNA. Gene synthesis has become an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology including heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene therapy and molecular engineering. The synthesis of nucleic acid sequences is often more economical than classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures.
August 11, 2011 – LONDON – Researchers say they have created the first ever animal with artificial information in its genetic code.
The technique, they say, could give biologists “atom-by-atom control” over the molecules in living organisms. One expert the BBC spoke to agrees, saying the technique would be seized upon by “the entire biology community.”
The work by a Cambridge University team, which used nematode worms, appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The worms – from the species Caenorhabditis elegans – are 1mm long, with just a thousand cells in their transparent bodies.
What makes the newly created animals different is that their genetic code has been extended to create biological molecules not known in the natural world.
Genes are the DNA blueprints that enable living organisms to construct their biological machinery, protein molecules, out of strings of simpler building blocks called amino acids.
Just 20 amino acids are used in natural living organisms, assembled in different combinations to make the tens of thousands of different proteins needed to sustain life.
But Sebastian Greiss and Jason Chin have re-engineered the nematode worm’s gene-reading machinery to include a 21st amino acid, not found in nature.
Dr Chin of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (where Francis Crick and James Watson first cracked the structure of DNA) describes the technique as “potentially transformational”: designer proteins could be created that are entirely under the researchers’ control
so they are using alcohol, carbohydrates and monosaccharides that are found in plants/bacteria to create artificial amino acids
THE D FORM L FORM AMINO ACID is tied to my daughters organ reversal
Still don't know much about it but I found that here is the connection on why my daughter is a right handed instead of left handed life form. We are not talking about hands but set up. Almost all of life on earth is set up left sided but my daughter is right sided.
Marathon Oil is near us and they are buying out a whole area near us because of Hexane.
You can see the freeway lights are yellow around the area.
I went to my email and retrieved the articles I sent my daughter
she is having kidney stone trouble I am thinking maybe something to do with food issues.
I had seen a black large stone in my child's closet at one time.
Oddest looking stone. I have to ask my kids to find out which one brought it home and when, it looked like large gravel , much like in this picture ....on one side and it was as though it was cut in half and shiny as hell on the other.
looking just like black glass but no buff marks at all.
skyship: those wormlike strands that make microtubules?
Jul 18, 2013 0:56:59 GMT -5
MK_Alberta: mpatability to D. discoideum for subcutaneous transmi
Jul 19, 2013 6:46:49 GMT -5
skyship: MK Alberta: I think you might have something, there, we looked at that long time ago, but, I think we did not think that it could be use actually in the human body. We thought it was used as a homologous thing meaning like cells, microtubules.
Jul 24, 2013 0:32:58 GMT -5
skyship: how come you can't read the threads, can you log on? Even as a guest you should be able to read what us hopeful researchers, or wanna be discoverers are doing as we morph the Morgellon Maze.
Jul 24, 2013 0:34:49 GMT -5
kritters: under "legend" are "new posts" and "no new posts". What is that about? clicking on new posts do not go to new posts.
Aug 9, 2013 9:47:15 GMT -5
XDelilah: I had 72 lesions this summer and was committed to a psyche ward 4x when I went to different hospitals, terrified by the biting, crawling and stinging sensations. They drugged me up and diagnoses me with 'delusional parasitosis'.
Aug 29, 2013 8:23:24 GMT -5
DonMae: I'm not seeing the pics.
Sept 14, 2013 13:09:29 GMT -5
aqt: how sickening XDeliliah.. I am truly sorry for your suffering as I can relate all too well. May you find peace.
Sept 16, 2013 15:09:15 GMT -5
kansas: Hello to all of you suffering from Morgellons I had the worst of it (hopefully) for a year and a half!
Oct 2, 2013 21:57:30 GMT -5
kansas: I just found this site and wanted to share what has finally stopped the horrific itching for me. It's seems that MSM and daily vitamin c, taken daily is helping. i have not idea why? i also think a dehumidifier and a uv air cleaner was used around the same
Oct 2, 2013 22:03:43 GMT -5
kansas: This is huge. A infectious disease doc on a plane with my best friend said this is bacterial. Really?! Not in our heads!
Oct 2, 2013 22:07:29 GMT -5
kansas: One more thing before I go, I sort of think this bacteria lives in our mouths. I have be using a germ killing mouthwash for the tooth pain and think it is helping the fight.
Oct 2, 2013 22:13:51 GMT -5
kansas: what is also terrible about this Morgellons is the predatory salesmen on the net and doctors pretending this is imaginary when we need medical help!
Oct 2, 2013 22:20:13 GMT -5
chelliebelle2468: does anyone know anything about the conditions and diseases associated from HLA-B27?
Oct 15, 2013 14:52:27 GMT -5