The new man-made molecules are called XNAs, and they’re uncannily similar to the genetic instructions for life found in every living thing on earth.
These strands of synthetic polymers can store, copy, and pass on genetic information the way DNA does. And they can even be evolved in the laboratory.
By baring these hallmarks of life, the lab-made variants could help researchers develop better drugs and therapeutic nanotechnologies.
DNA and RNA consist of 4 nucleic acid bases – the chemical letters A, G, C, and T – that run along a backbone of phosphates and sugars. DNA uses deoxyribose sugars, while RNA uses ribose.
With XNA, those sugars are replaced by a different sugar – one of 6 alternatives, including hexitol, threose, and arabinose. The 6 resulting molecules are known as xeno-nucleic acids (”xeno” is Greek for “foreign”).
Threose is a four-carbon monosaccharide or carbohydrate with molecular formula C4H8O4. It has a terminal aldehyde group rather than a ketone in its linear chain, and so is considered part of the aldose family of monosaccharides. The threose name can be used to refer to both the D- and L-stereoisomers, and more generally to the racemic mixture (D/L-, equal parts D- and L-) as well as to the more generic threose structure (absolute stereochemistry unspecified).
Artificial gene synthesis is the process of synthesizing a gene in vitro without the need for initial template DNA samples. The main method is currently by oligonucleotide synthesis (also used for other applications) from digital genetic sequences and subsequent annealing of the resultant fragments. In contrast, natural DNA replication requires existing DNA templates for synthesizing new DNA.
Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. Synthesis of the first peptide- and protein-coding genes was performed in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham, respectively.
Commercial gene synthesis services are now available from numerous companies worldwide, some of which have built their business model around this task. Current gene synthesis approaches are most often based on a combination of organic chemistry and molecular biological techniques and entire genes may be synthesized "de novo", without the need for precursor template DNA. Gene synthesis has become an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology including heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene therapy and molecular engineering. The synthesis of nucleic acid sequences is often more economical than classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures.
August 11, 2011 – LONDON – Researchers say they have created the first ever animal with artificial information in its genetic code.
The technique, they say, could give biologists “atom-by-atom control” over the molecules in living organisms. One expert the BBC spoke to agrees, saying the technique would be seized upon by “the entire biology community.”
The work by a Cambridge University team, which used nematode worms, appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The worms – from the species Caenorhabditis elegans – are 1mm long, with just a thousand cells in their transparent bodies.
What makes the newly created animals different is that their genetic code has been extended to create biological molecules not known in the natural world.
Genes are the DNA blueprints that enable living organisms to construct their biological machinery, protein molecules, out of strings of simpler building blocks called amino acids.
Just 20 amino acids are used in natural living organisms, assembled in different combinations to make the tens of thousands of different proteins needed to sustain life.
But Sebastian Greiss and Jason Chin have re-engineered the nematode worm’s gene-reading machinery to include a 21st amino acid, not found in nature.
Dr Chin of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (where Francis Crick and James Watson first cracked the structure of DNA) describes the technique as “potentially transformational”: designer proteins could be created that are entirely under the researchers’ control
so they are using alcohol, carbohydrates and monosaccharides that are found in plants/bacteria to create artificial amino acids
THE D FORM L FORM AMINO ACID is tied to my daughters organ reversal
Still don't know much about it but I found that here is the connection on why my daughter is a right handed instead of left handed life form. We are not talking about hands but set up. Almost all of life on earth is set up left sided but my daughter is right sided.
Marathon Oil is near us and they are buying out a whole area near us because of Hexane.
You can see the freeway lights are yellow around the area.
I went to my email and retrieved the articles I sent my daughter
she is having kidney stone trouble I am thinking maybe something to do with food issues.
I had seen a black large stone in my child's closet at one time.
Oddest looking stone. I have to ask my kids to find out which one brought it home and when, it looked like large gravel , much like in this picture ....on one side and it was as though it was cut in half and shiny as hell on the other.
looking just like black glass but no buff marks at all.
skyship: hello, I am still wondering about those sponges. I remember your theory. Good to hear from you.
May 26, 2014 20:40:33 GMT -5
skyship: Mr. Frey, check this out: http://techurchin.com/a-sponge-for-armor/
May 26, 2014 20:46:25 GMT -5
Steve Frey: hey skyship, I don't come here very often so if you want to correspond you can email me at email@example.com
Jun 10, 2014 19:30:39 GMT -5
know not: Hiya there?
Jun 15, 2014 3:40:11 GMT -5
Strong: Hello, Glad I found this forum again
Aug 20, 2014 19:12:30 GMT -5
lily t: The Truth Denied website is carrying the history and side effects of retinoids. Retinoids are pigments known as Vitamin A. On the right upper corner scroll down to Masters of Murder and you can view the documents of proof.
Aug 24, 2014 9:13:31 GMT -5
Lily t: Alltrans retinoic acid, isotretnoin (Accutane)are derived from "gutt flora" in the intestines. These are acids involved in digesting of food and unfolding proteins. Yet, some master mind of evil decided these agents can be applied to our faces.
Aug 25, 2014 9:19:01 GMT -5
Lily t: All trans retinoic acid and isotretinoin (Accutane) are constituents of "gutt flora" from the intestines. A master mind of evil was able to convince FDA to approve these toxic agents in products to be put on human faces. These agents are cancer causing.
Aug 25, 2014 9:21:02 GMT -5
Lily t: Johnson and Johnson, Hoffman and LaRoche, University of Penn. and all who develop and prescribed these known toxic agents of retinoids need to be held accountable for their crimes.
Aug 25, 2014 9:22:36 GMT -5
Lily t: Napthalene and palmitic acid (retinoid) and metals were used to create NAPALM Bomb and these very agents are used in Renova 0.05% as well as the bioweapon phosphorous.
Aug 25, 2014 9:23:59 GMT -5
lily t: The Truth Denied, Roxy Lopez and Laura Croft, have documents from US Pharmacopeia proving ecoli, fungus and yeast are used in vaccines. They are acting as nano robots to deliver the drug molecules. They use aluminum phosphate that causes rage.
Aug 26, 2014 8:34:22 GMT -5
lily t: The Truth Denied website (Roxy Lopez and Laura Croft) have the physical documents from US Pharmacopeia that vaccines involve ecoli, fungus and yeast acting as nano robots to deliver drug molescules. They use aluminum phosphate known to cause rage.
Aug 26, 2014 8:36:34 GMT -5
lily t: Dieseases are being caused to us by living and dead viruses and microorganisms being used in vaccines and drugs. MRSA is pseudomonas aeruginosa and staph aurues resistance to methylene and methylene is used in retinoid drugs to make them resistant.
Aug 27, 2014 9:45:25 GMT -5
lily t: Roxy Lopez please finish the story you asked for on "Masters of Murder". The publc deserves the truth
Aug 27, 2014 9:46:04 GMT -5
lily t: NDA19963 states microorganisms of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staph aureus were used, ttnpb (engineered hepatitis B virus was used and toxic gases of methylene, ethylene, DMSO (partitions tissue making slits that these proteins with wires slide into & knot.
Sept 8, 2014 9:58:11 GMT -5
lily t: These knotting proteins and molecular motor proteins are known as nano machines. The truth about ACCUTANE must be told to the public--bacteriorhodopsin known as smart dust that self replicates and self assembles--the purple membrane glob retinal pigments.
Sept 8, 2014 10:00:04 GMT -5
Lady:: Lady: Not only have I gotten rid of these things in my home but for the most part on my body. They hate rubbing alcohol, vinegar and Diatomaceous eatable earth.
Oct 31, 2014 9:15:04 GMT -5
healed of morgellons: http://livewithcfs.blogspot.co.uk/2012/05/dr-konynenburgs-simplified-methylation.html
Nov 22, 2014 14:58:12 GMT -5