Remote Neural Monitoring has its roots in the infamous MKULTRA project of the 1950s which, although it focussed on drugs for mind control, also included neurological research into "radiation" (non-ionizing EMF) and bioelectric research and development. The earliest non-classified references to this type of technology appear in a 1976 patent by R.G. Malech Patent #3951134 “Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves” USPTO granted 4/20/76. The patent describes a technique using the transmission of 100 and 210 MHz signals to the brain yielding a 110 MHz signal which is modulated by the brain waves and can be detected by a receiver for further processing. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...
Neural probes are micromachined multichannel electrode arrays that facilitate the functional stimulation and recording of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. For long-term implantations, surface modification is necessary for maintaining the stable connection between electrodes and neurons. The conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and synthetic peptide DCDPGYIGSR were co-deposited on the electrode surface by electrochemical polymerization. The stability of PPy/DCDPGYIGSR coatings was tested in soaking experiments. It was found that the peptide was entrapped in the PPy film and did not diffuse away within 7 weeks of soaking in DI water. Coated probes were implanted in guinea pig brain for periods of 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Recording tests were performed and the impedance was monitored. The explanted probes and tissue were examined by immunocytochemical studies. Significantly more neurofilament positive staining was found on the coated electrode which indicated that the coatings had established strong connections with the neuronal structure in vivo. Good recordings were obtained from the coated sites that had neurons attached. First week tissue sections had no significant gliosis. In week 2, a layer of non-neuronal tissue consisting of mostly meningeal fibroblasts and ECM protein including at least fibronectin was formed around the probe tracks of both coated and uncoated probes. Astrocytes started to form a loosely organized layer by the end of the third week. Keywords
Polypyrrole; Peptides; Neural probes and Gliosis
Corresponding author. Macromolecular Science and Engineering Center, The University of Michigan, 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136, USA. Tel.: +1-734-936-3161; fax: +1-734-763-4788
Polypyrrol seems to be involed in conducting filaments: Here involves keratinocytes.
=Culture of human keratinocytes on polypyrrole-based conducting polymers. Ateh DD1, Vadgama P, Navsaria HA. Author information Abstract
Variously loaded polypyrrole films, including those containing proteins and polysaccharides, were prepared on gold-coated polycarbonate coverslips. The characteristics of human keratinocytes were studied on these films by microscopy, biochemical assays, and immunocytochemistry. We found keratinocyte viability to be load dependent. For chloride, polyvinyl sulphate, dermatan sulphate, and collagen-loaded polypyrrole films, keratinocyte viability as assessed by the AlamarBlue assay was respectively 47.22, 60.43, 87.71, and 22.65% of tissue culture polystyrene controls after 5 days. This was found to require a previously unreported polymer washing step prior to cell seeding due to the observed toxicity of untreated films. In the case of bare polycarbonate and gold substrates, viability was respectively 75.44 and 61.04% of tissue culture polystyrene controls after 5 days. Keratinocytes stained positive for PCNA (proliferation), K10 (suprabasal differentiation), and K16 (hyperproliferation) markers although cell morphology was poor for organotypical cultures on dermatan- loaded polypyrrole compared with de-epidermalized dermis. From our studies, we concluded that optimized polypyrrole films adequately support keratinocyte growth in submerged cultures with some improvements needed for organotypical cultures. Polypyrrole composites are attractive candidates for tissue-engineering applications since they may incorporate biomolecules and are electrically addressable with the potential to both direct and report on cell activity.
. Tissue and cell interactions with polypyrrole 3.1 Context
Since the early nineties, PPy has been substantially studied as a cell growth substrate within in vitro culture models. Furthermore, the effects of implantation in vivo have also been studied using animal models. These PPy films have usually been electrodeposited on an underlying electrode surface (e.g. indium tin oxide or gold) with simultaneous incorporation of inert counterions or biologically active molecules ready for cell culture or to be peeled off prior to use. These studies could be broadly divided into two categories, those that investigate interactions with tissue for PPy used after synthesis with specific loadings or conditions and those that additionally exploit conducting properties as a means of influencing cellular outcomes.
telechelic polymers are conductive, or semi-conductive, one end attaches to?
End-group transformation chemistry
route 4 Advantages:
Incorporate functionality incompatible with polymerization Characterization prior to further functionalization Prepare ω- and α,ω-telechelic polymers Block copolymers, immobilized to surfaces, etc.
The halide end-functionality, frequently present on the active chain end(s) of polymers prepared by ATRP, particularly polystyrenes or polyacrylates, can participate in nucleophilic substitution reactions. This strategy has been used for the synthesis of a plethora of end-functional well-defined polymeric materials. The advantages are that one can incorporate functionality incompatible with the polymerization process, and if desired the material can be characterized prior to further functionalization. This procedure allows the preparation of ω- and α,ω-telechelic polymers and the selection of functionality suitable for further specific reactions such as attachment to bio-materials or materials that can be immobilized to surfaces, etc.
tash: Hi skizit, I have watched all your videos on youtube and cant thank you enough for all you have educated me on. I cry for you alot and a bit for me. I was wanting to send you photos of what is raining down everyday here in Australia in hope you can tell me
Dec 11, 2019 23:28:22 GMT -5
tash: not sure where to send them as hush mail and rocket mail bounced back
Dec 11, 2019 23:30:03 GMT -5