polytene [ˈpɒlɪˌti¢°n] adj (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Genetics) denoting a type of giant-size chromosome consisting of many replicated genes in parallel, found esp in Drosophila larvae [from poly- + Greek taenia band]
Polytene chromosomes are giant chromosomes common to many dipteran (two-winged) flies. They begin as normal chromosomes, but through repeated rounds of DNA replication without any cell division (called endoreplication), they become large, banded chromosomes (see figure). For unknown reasons, the centromeric regions of the chromosomes do not endoreplicate very well. As a result, the centromeres of all the chromosomes bundle together in a mass called the chromocenter.
Biochemical data had strongly suggested that the oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTGGGG) assembled into higher order structures under the appropriate conditions (5), but the morphological nature of these structures was unknown. AFM analyses of G-wires immediately gave significant insight into their structural nature (4) (Fig. 4). They are long, linear polymers. Their measured height is approximately 25-30 Å, which agrees well with the diameter of a G-quartet determined by NMR and x-ray crystallography (16-18). This is an interesting finding because the height of B-DNA in the AFM is typically 5-7Å, which is less than half its width determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, it appears that G-wires are more robust than B-DNA in the sense that they are not compressed by the scanning tip. An additional possibility is that B-DNA undergoes a severe conformation change when absorbed to a surface, but G-wires do not. However, previous work determining the helical period of B-DNA on mica surfaces suggests that it is not significantly altered upon binding to the mica (19).
oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTGGGG) assembled into higher order structures
These are telomeric folks! meaning capping uncapping, circular dna, senescence or immortal?
whatever is chosen for us!
================== G-Wires: Self-Assembly of a Telomeric Oligonucleotide, d(GGGGTTGGGG), into Large Superstructures
The telomeric DNA oligonucleotide 5'-G4T2G4-3' (Tet 1.5) spontaneously assembles into large superstructures we have termed G-wires. G-wires can be resolved by gel electrophoresis as a ladder pattern. The self-association of Tet 1.5 is noncovalent and exhibits characteristics of G4-DNA, a parallel four-stranded structure stabilized by guanine tetrads. Formation of G-wires is dependent upon the presence of Na+ and/or K+, and once formed, G-wires are resistant to denaturation............
,,,"The results described here extend our understanding of the structural potential of G-rich nucleic acids and may provide insight into the possible roles of G-rich sequences and the novel structures they can form in biological systems."
As you know from your study of genetics, a great wealth of genetic information is already available for Drosophila. It is a remarkable model organism for both studies of transmission inheritance, embryonic development and control of gene expression. Aside from its genetics and short life cycle, the fruit fly has some unusual biology, such as polytene chromosomes and imaginal discs, which developmental researchers have put to good use.
In this exercise, we will Drosophila polytene chromosomes to demonstrate how genes are able to respond to their environment. Or specifically how increasing the temperature can cause the activation of banks of genes that code for heat shock proteins, whose function is to stabilize the 3D structure of critical enzyme systems. We will start by learning how to dissect salivary glands from third instar larvae. We will then prepare polytene chromosomes, identify them and compare the puffing pattern of heat-shocked larvae to that of normal larvae.
wonder if the brown cells we see are the salivary cells of the fruit fly , that is where these polytene chromosomes would be most at home at unless they are now made of artificial poly then I think we would be looking at an artificial polycomb sac containing an artificial polytene genome or antisense as emplored by isis pharma?
The it patent also would be a great coating to get the cells to accept it, the chitin , fungus poly N AG
In the study, scientists showed that the ROP18 protein disables host cell proteins that would otherwise pop a protective bubble the parasite makes for itself.
The parasite puts the bubble on like a spacesuit by forming a membrane around itself when it enters host cells. This protects it from the hostile environment inside the cell, which would otherwise kill it.
"If we can find therapies that block ROP18 and other parasite proteins like it, that could give the host the upper hand in the battle against infection," said first author Sarah Fentress, a graduate student in the laboratory of L. David Sibley, professor of molecular microbiology.
"The exact role of ROP18 and related proteins in human disease remains to be studied. But mice are natural hosts of Toxoplasma, so studies in laboratory mice are relevant to the spread of infection," said Sibley.
In the new study, Fentress showed that the ROP18 protein binds to a class of host proteins known as immunity-related GTPases. Tests in cell cultures and animal models showed that this binding leads to a reaction that disables the GTPases, which normally would rupture the parasite's protective membrane.
jonsi: I've been gone way to long. I need to catch up on all the new info you all have here! Where should I go first? Thanks
Apr 3, 2014 3:00:53 GMT -5
Fl4sh: Just saw something peculiar. Two street sweepers just came down my street. Wouldn't have thought twice but as I thought...why two? I noticed they spray someting first I wonder what they spray? Been sneezing ever since.......hmm.....any help?
Apr 25, 2014 10:33:40 GMT -5
Steve frey: Morgellons 101 can you please provide your source of information regarding morgellons and spider silk. Spider silks composition aligns very closely with "spongin" which is a product of sea sponges, this would provide strong support for my sponge theory .
May 1, 2014 12:56:29 GMT -5
skyship: hello, I am still wondering about those sponges. I remember your theory. Good to hear from you.
May 26, 2014 20:40:33 GMT -5
skyship: Mr. Frey, check this out: http://techurchin.com/a-sponge-for-armor/
May 26, 2014 20:46:25 GMT -5
Steve Frey: hey skyship, I don't come here very often so if you want to correspond you can email me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Jun 10, 2014 19:30:39 GMT -5
know not: Hiya there?
Jun 15, 2014 3:40:11 GMT -5
Strong: Hello, Glad I found this forum again
Aug 20, 2014 19:12:30 GMT -5
lily t: The Truth Denied website is carrying the history and side effects of retinoids. Retinoids are pigments known as Vitamin A. On the right upper corner scroll down to Masters of Murder and you can view the documents of proof.
Aug 24, 2014 9:13:31 GMT -5
Lily t: Alltrans retinoic acid, isotretnoin (Accutane)are derived from "gutt flora" in the intestines. These are acids involved in digesting of food and unfolding proteins. Yet, some master mind of evil decided these agents can be applied to our faces.
Aug 25, 2014 9:19:01 GMT -5
Lily t: All trans retinoic acid and isotretinoin (Accutane) are constituents of "gutt flora" from the intestines. A master mind of evil was able to convince FDA to approve these toxic agents in products to be put on human faces. These agents are cancer causing.
Aug 25, 2014 9:21:02 GMT -5
Lily t: Johnson and Johnson, Hoffman and LaRoche, University of Penn. and all who develop and prescribed these known toxic agents of retinoids need to be held accountable for their crimes.
Aug 25, 2014 9:22:36 GMT -5
Lily t: Napthalene and palmitic acid (retinoid) and metals were used to create NAPALM Bomb and these very agents are used in Renova 0.05% as well as the bioweapon phosphorous.
Aug 25, 2014 9:23:59 GMT -5
lily t: The Truth Denied, Roxy Lopez and Laura Croft, have documents from US Pharmacopeia proving ecoli, fungus and yeast are used in vaccines. They are acting as nano robots to deliver the drug molecules. They use aluminum phosphate that causes rage.
Aug 26, 2014 8:34:22 GMT -5
lily t: The Truth Denied website (Roxy Lopez and Laura Croft) have the physical documents from US Pharmacopeia that vaccines involve ecoli, fungus and yeast acting as nano robots to deliver drug molescules. They use aluminum phosphate known to cause rage.
Aug 26, 2014 8:36:34 GMT -5
lily t: Dieseases are being caused to us by living and dead viruses and microorganisms being used in vaccines and drugs. MRSA is pseudomonas aeruginosa and staph aurues resistance to methylene and methylene is used in retinoid drugs to make them resistant.
Aug 27, 2014 9:45:25 GMT -5
lily t: Roxy Lopez please finish the story you asked for on "Masters of Murder". The publc deserves the truth
Aug 27, 2014 9:46:04 GMT -5
lily t: NDA19963 states microorganisms of pseudomonas aeruginosa and staph aureus were used, ttnpb (engineered hepatitis B virus was used and toxic gases of methylene, ethylene, DMSO (partitions tissue making slits that these proteins with wires slide into & knot.
Sept 8, 2014 9:58:11 GMT -5
lily t: These knotting proteins and molecular motor proteins are known as nano machines. The truth about ACCUTANE must be told to the public--bacteriorhodopsin known as smart dust that self replicates and self assembles--the purple membrane glob retinal pigments.
Sept 8, 2014 10:00:04 GMT -5