polytene [ˈpɒlɪˌti¢°n] adj (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Genetics) denoting a type of giant-size chromosome consisting of many replicated genes in parallel, found esp in Drosophila larvae [from poly- + Greek taenia band]
Polytene chromosomes are giant chromosomes common to many dipteran (two-winged) flies. They begin as normal chromosomes, but through repeated rounds of DNA replication without any cell division (called endoreplication), they become large, banded chromosomes (see figure). For unknown reasons, the centromeric regions of the chromosomes do not endoreplicate very well. As a result, the centromeres of all the chromosomes bundle together in a mass called the chromocenter.
Biochemical data had strongly suggested that the oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTGGGG) assembled into higher order structures under the appropriate conditions (5), but the morphological nature of these structures was unknown. AFM analyses of G-wires immediately gave significant insight into their structural nature (4) (Fig. 4). They are long, linear polymers. Their measured height is approximately 25-30 Å, which agrees well with the diameter of a G-quartet determined by NMR and x-ray crystallography (16-18). This is an interesting finding because the height of B-DNA in the AFM is typically 5-7Å, which is less than half its width determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, it appears that G-wires are more robust than B-DNA in the sense that they are not compressed by the scanning tip. An additional possibility is that B-DNA undergoes a severe conformation change when absorbed to a surface, but G-wires do not. However, previous work determining the helical period of B-DNA on mica surfaces suggests that it is not significantly altered upon binding to the mica (19).
oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTGGGG) assembled into higher order structures
These are telomeric folks! meaning capping uncapping, circular dna, senescence or immortal?
whatever is chosen for us!
================== G-Wires: Self-Assembly of a Telomeric Oligonucleotide, d(GGGGTTGGGG), into Large Superstructures
The telomeric DNA oligonucleotide 5'-G4T2G4-3' (Tet 1.5) spontaneously assembles into large superstructures we have termed G-wires. G-wires can be resolved by gel electrophoresis as a ladder pattern. The self-association of Tet 1.5 is noncovalent and exhibits characteristics of G4-DNA, a parallel four-stranded structure stabilized by guanine tetrads. Formation of G-wires is dependent upon the presence of Na+ and/or K+, and once formed, G-wires are resistant to denaturation............
,,,"The results described here extend our understanding of the structural potential of G-rich nucleic acids and may provide insight into the possible roles of G-rich sequences and the novel structures they can form in biological systems."
As you know from your study of genetics, a great wealth of genetic information is already available for Drosophila. It is a remarkable model organism for both studies of transmission inheritance, embryonic development and control of gene expression. Aside from its genetics and short life cycle, the fruit fly has some unusual biology, such as polytene chromosomes and imaginal discs, which developmental researchers have put to good use.
In this exercise, we will Drosophila polytene chromosomes to demonstrate how genes are able to respond to their environment. Or specifically how increasing the temperature can cause the activation of banks of genes that code for heat shock proteins, whose function is to stabilize the 3D structure of critical enzyme systems. We will start by learning how to dissect salivary glands from third instar larvae. We will then prepare polytene chromosomes, identify them and compare the puffing pattern of heat-shocked larvae to that of normal larvae.
wonder if the brown cells we see are the salivary cells of the fruit fly , that is where these polytene chromosomes would be most at home at unless they are now made of artificial poly then I think we would be looking at an artificial polycomb sac containing an artificial polytene genome or antisense as emplored by isis pharma?
The it patent also would be a great coating to get the cells to accept it, the chitin , fungus poly N AG
In the study, scientists showed that the ROP18 protein disables host cell proteins that would otherwise pop a protective bubble the parasite makes for itself.
The parasite puts the bubble on like a spacesuit by forming a membrane around itself when it enters host cells. This protects it from the hostile environment inside the cell, which would otherwise kill it.
"If we can find therapies that block ROP18 and other parasite proteins like it, that could give the host the upper hand in the battle against infection," said first author Sarah Fentress, a graduate student in the laboratory of L. David Sibley, professor of molecular microbiology.
"The exact role of ROP18 and related proteins in human disease remains to be studied. But mice are natural hosts of Toxoplasma, so studies in laboratory mice are relevant to the spread of infection," said Sibley.
In the new study, Fentress showed that the ROP18 protein binds to a class of host proteins known as immunity-related GTPases. Tests in cell cultures and animal models showed that this binding leads to a reaction that disables the GTPases, which normally would rupture the parasite's protective membrane.
doncandea: thanks, I tried the alcohol, DE, and vinegar and it worked a bit thanks
Mar 31, 2015 4:07:25 GMT -5
Lily T: When a chemical corp. states on its Material safety data sheet, "NOT TO BE USED ON HUMANS", research only, everyone must be concerned than to how pharmaceutical corps. are putting all trans retinoic acid and isotretinoin and TTNPB in patents.
Mar 31, 2015 23:41:29 GMT -5
Lily T: These inventors of these retinoid drugs admitted to not knowing the mechanics of how these biological living cells of various species of retinoids known as Vitamin A work. The human body will reject and fight off foreign invaders-comprising the immune sys
Mar 31, 2015 23:44:13 GMT -5
Lily T: Not to be used on humans means do not use these agents on a human being. There are thousands and thousands of patents using these toxic chemicals that alter human genetics forever. The risks do not outweigh the benefits. Too many lies for too long.
Mar 31, 2015 23:45:44 GMT -5
Lily T: When the FDA and pharmaceutical corps. are allowed to violate federal laws such as 21 cfr 201.57 and not properly label a drug with the true side effects and biological testing that is be on a drug pamphlet we have a serious problems.
Mar 31, 2015 23:49:57 GMT -5
Lily T: When physicians ignore a patients symptoms from a drug reaction to cover up for pharmaceutical corps. who are funded by various govt agencies in developing these toxic drugs we have a serious problem. Putting the general population in danger.
Mar 31, 2015 23:52:05 GMT -5
Lily T: Retinoids are chemo drugs made with toxic gases, explosives agents, and nuclear radioactive agents such as tritium. Before trying any drug or any product look up the chemicals from a chemical material safety data sheet, then decide whether to use or not.
Mar 31, 2015 23:55:16 GMT -5
BGP: Research Dr. Ross Andersen, N.D.[br]"I believe,the single most undiagnosed health challenge in the history if the human race is parasites. I realize thats a pretty brave statement, but it is based on his 20 yrs of experience with more than 20,000 patients.TRY
Apr 6, 2015 10:10:45 GMT -5
Fl4sh52: Where have Sky and critt gone? Miss your insight and posts
Apr 27, 2015 14:13:16 GMT -5
Chocket: I am one of the Morgellons CDC test subjects. I am open to any questions. Carrie Chasse firstname.lastname@example.org
May 17, 2015 13:22:42 GMT -5
Aetana: Has anyone tried with Chlorella? it says that this alga helps the body to eliminate metals. There are available pills or powder of Chlorella on the market even "bio" they say.
May 19, 2015 3:50:51 GMT -5
misslilsis: Maybe found something helpful. I now have 3 infected loved ones and found information on a bath in 2Cups borax,1 C h2o2, 1 lb Epson salt,2 drps tea tree oil 1/2 box baking soda. Soak as long as u want , then scrub w sulfur soap. research it
May 25, 2015 11:52:26 GMT -5
misslilsis: trouble loggin in Jennifer Edgerton on Facebook
May 25, 2015 11:53:06 GMT -5
chetmacaroon: Morgellons found to caused by Bartonella infection. http://www.lyme-morgellons.com/
May 27, 2015 9:23:06 GMT -5
nonbeliever: Aetana, Chlorella and Chlorophyll are excellent in reducing systemic toxins. However be prepared for a Herxheimer response if you are suffering from serious fungal overload. I eliminated lots of accumulated intestinal biofilm for about the first week.
Jun 4, 2015 12:17:24 GMT -5
nonbeliever: I was a nonbeliever despite being rejected by the first two doctors that I went to see. I never used the term "crawling sensation" however I think they took their cue when I said "strange sensation" and diagnosed me with DOP from 10' away! Absurd.
Jun 4, 2015 12:23:44 GMT -5
nonbeliever: Enter the age of nanotechnology and high tech medical diagnostic equipment. Yet so few dermatologists will use a mere simple and inexpensive pair of magnifying goggles. Maybe they realize that they're not obligated to cure what they can't see. Suspicious?
Jun 5, 2015 1:36:04 GMT -5
Geranium Clivensis: Well done nonbeliever. We are facing outrageous fraud and mockery.
Jun 27, 2015 11:55:13 GMT -5
threader: The past 2 dermatologists I've seen both were both Morg-literate. That doesn't mean they have many good solutions, but at least there was no demeaning DOP talk. Within a few years doctors who consider Morgs to be DOP will be considered cruel and ignorant.
Jul 20, 2015 18:53:58 GMT -5