""Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. Cellulose, starch, chitin, proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomeric units, respectively, are sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides."
Hi Sky, ty for carrying on, truth warrior that you are. I see chitin on the list above and we did a bit of research a couple of years ago looking at chitin and chitosan on another site. From memory only; I was looking at the composition of the shell of the spheres and what they could possibly be made of. My theory is that; if you can dissolve the outside membrane of the shell, which is the housing of the main organism, then you can possibly stop it from going through its other phases, a way to bring apoptosis to the otherwise perpetual organism. From memory, chitosan was a way to do this - in fact; I purchased a couple of bottles which I never did end up taking, so I don't know if it's effective in helping us or not? I am hearing that someone has recommended chitosan without giving the reasoning behind why it might work; which was disclosed earlier in our research. I would be interested to know if others have had positive results from chitosan being in their protocol?
It's at your vitamin and health food stores, or was... have they shut those down yet?
I have a question, how many of you have ridges on your fingernail/s? And, which fingernail/s are more predominately marked? And, how many are non-smokers, or never smoked?
Okay, this is scaring me I have ridges on both thumbs and never smoked.
I once researched why the ridges (I did slam both thumbs in car doors as a kid. Always in a rush and never paid attention to little details like moving fingers out of the way) and that was one reason given. However, the other reason was illness or something.
I remember that discussion on that forum.
Last Edit: Nov 19, 2011 10:00:41 GMT -5 by kritters
Oh, Krittsy, don't be scared... they want us scared - they want us terrified so that our brains and mouths will completely shut down. Well, you are the exception to every rule, it is not the thumbs I'm looking for - my thumbnails are near perfect. Well, except for the one that is now deformed from trying to dig the sand-like particles out of my ear... I am positive that my fingerprints on that finger have changed. I'd have to look at my fingerprints on an old gun permit that I probably don't qualify for any longer because of my delusional mental illness condition here? Well... I guess it's possible it's not a real finger anymore, definitely not a real ear... my issues are nothing to be concerned about though.
These two questions are related in that they relate to air, spraying and an herbicide. Did anyone see that the herbicide with nicotine in it was found to be the primary cause of colony collapse disorder?
A certain herbicide that I'm looking at causes ridges on a particular finger, which I have. Which is related to the sugar element I just posted about, which is related to 'status quo' herbicides... just wondering if others have these specific ridged fingernails?
Did everyone see in the news about the mystery disease clinic in the US that is now solving mystery diseases?... of course, you have to be screened first to be accepted, we're probably not mysterious enough?... Where is that article?
I've been sick for about 3 weeks with a pneumonia-like illness that is trying to take me. After getting stung by little wasps in the Spring causing my Morgellons to worsen, then my skin starting to explode with gritty sand particles coming out of all my pores this summer from being at the ocean, and now with this pneumonia, my health continues to worsen. I made a pact with God yesterday that if I get well enough again, I'm going to come out fighting. When you get sick and get a glimpse of pending death - you can see how very little you did along the way...
Kam! Please don't keep these things to yourself. you have us!!!
Why do you think being at the shore did something?
you know, the naturopathic doctor I went to for intravenous C and chelation was Indian and he said the reason I had lesions is because I had a STRONG immune system. Well, of course he might be right or wrong, but I think in part he's right. In general. With this chit, the deal could have been changed.
Last year I had a horrific lesion on my chin that was no doubt infected with MRSA since it's everywhere now. I kept putting H2o2 on it and the grains (fungal bodies) kept APPEARING on my skin around it cause they were bubbled onto the surface and my fingers pushed them around.
But it wasn't until I took both antibiotic cream from a derm and also and antifungal script that it totally cleared up. I also got a major sinus infection, because of my Candida, but I really think the anti fungal did the deal, and the antibiotic cream made it worse. Not to mention I had an antibiotic weeks prior when I had my teeth done.
Pneumonia is serious, Kam!!! Are you being treated?
I got another antibiotic yesterday and prednisone, I sweated a bucket all last night in my sleep, I think that's a good thing - I feel better today, this has been 3 weeks fighting now.
I put my head/ear down in the ocean salt water, snorkeling - and with the hot sun, it caused my ear to explode the particles. The particles went all over me and since then, I have grits coming from everywhere under my skin.
Something strange, don't know if it relates but seems to; us 3 girls all put on an aloe vera gel for our sunburns, all 3 of us had particles coming out of our skin the next day or so... with me - they never left. The guy in the group didn't use the aloe vera and had no 'grit' symptoms.
Now, I'm afraid to use any aloe vera product... am I part plant now?... lol putting (nano mystery?) plant material on a new species plant material - me... a crazy thought but look what the hell they've done to us?
Demyelination results in diverse symptoms determined by the functions of the affected neurons. It disrupts signals between the brain and other parts of the body; symptoms differ from patient to patient, and have different presentations upon clinical observation and in laboratory studies.
Typical symptoms include:
blurriness in the central visual field that affects only one eye; may be accompanied by pain upon eye movement; double vision; loss of vision/hearing odd sensation in legs, arms, chest, or face, such as tingling or numbness (neuropathy); weakness of arms or legs; cognitive disruption including speech impairment and memory loss; heat sensitivity (symptoms worsen, reappear upon exposure to heat such as a hot shower); loss of dexterity; difficulty coordinating movement or balance disorder; difficulty controlling bowel movements or urination; fatigue.
Research to repair damaged myelin sheaths is ongoing. Techniques include surgically implanting oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system and inducing myelin repair with certain antibodies. While there have been some encouraging results in mice (via stem cell transplantation), it is still unknown whether this technique can be effective in replacing myelin loss in humans. Some researchers hypothesize that cholinergic treatments, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), may have beneficial effects on myelination, myelin repair, and myelin integrity. It is argued that increasing cholinergic stimulation also acts through subtle trophic effects on brain developmental processes and particularly on oligodendrocytes and the lifelong myelination process they support.
Dysmyelination is characterized by a defective structure and function of myelin sheaths; unlike demyelination, it does not produce lesions."
dysmyelation does not cause lesions, but does demyelation cause lesions? sounds like it does by way of the CNPase. ================================
CNPase is a myelin-associated enzyme that makes up 4% of total CNS myelin protein, and is thought to undergo significant age-associated changes. It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a cohesive understanding of its specific physiologic functions are still ambiguous.
Structural studies have revealed that four classes of CNPs belong to one protein superfamily. CNP's catalytic core consists of three alpha-helices and nine beta-strands. The proposed mechanism of CNPs phosphodiesterase catalytic activity is similar to the second step of the reaction mechanism for RNase A.
CNP is expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes in the CNS, and the appearance of CNP seems to be one of the earliest events of oligodendrocyte differentiation. CNP is thought to play a critical role in the events leading up to myelination.
I notice UCSD, Salk and Scripps all involved in this. there might be something here.
Some of these things we have talked about. When we were talking about these ies of these from NL with SuperMan superbug Tam tam? ==============================
Planarian regeneration was one of the first models in which the gradient concept was developed. Morphological studies based on the analysis of the regeneration rates of planarian fragments from different body regions, the generation of heteromorphoses, and experiments of tissue transplantation led T.H. Morgan (1901) and C.M Child (1911) to postulate different kinds of gradients responsible for the regenerative process in these highly plastic animals. However, after a century of research, the role of morphogens in planarian regeneration has yet to be demonstrated.
This may change soon, as the sequencing of the planarian genome and the possibility of performing gene functional analysis by RNA interference (RNAi) have led to the isolation of elements of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways that control patterning and axial polarity during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Here, we discuss whether the actions of these molecules could be based on morphogenetic gradients.
So we have CNPase and CTPase myelin CNS and the CTPase cytoophidiums and cytoskeleton what they have in common is the fibroblasts.
...elements of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways that control patterning and axial polarity"...... the same things studied in humans or altered in the cytoskeletal rearrangements.
....."bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ",,,,,
I had all the " The proposed mechanism of CNPs phosphodiesterase catalytic activity is similar to the second step of the reaction mechanism for RNase A."
It is toxic/animal RNASE A..........
ANG RANASE 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 12 and there is now a 13
As you go through them you start to see the startling pattern.
Lets just call them the RNase SuperFamily of Genes, includes primate, dog, chicken, frog, etc..........Should we say there is an evolved species of humans and a devolved species of human.
===================================================== A more rational version of the concept of devolution, a version that does not involve concepts of "primitive" or "advanced" organisms, is for most purposes academic. It is based on the observation that if certain genetic changes in a particular combination (sometimes in a particular sequence as well) are precisely reversed, one should get precise reversal of the evolutionary process, yielding an atavism or "throwback", whether more or less complex than the ancestors where the process began.  At a trivial level, where just one or a few mutations are involved, selection pressure in one direction can have one effect, which can be reversed by new patterns of selection when conditions change. That could be seen as reversed evolution, though the concept is of not much interest because it does not differ in any functional or effective way from any other adaptation to selection pressures. As the number of genetic changes rises however, one combinatorial effect is that it becomes vanishingly unlikely that the full course of adaptation can be reversed precisely. Also, if one of the original adaptations involved complete loss of a gene, one can neglect any probability of reversal. Accordingly, one might well expect reversal of peppered moth colour changes, but not reversal of the loss of limbs in snakes.
 History of devolutionThe concept of devolution or degenerative evolution was used by scientists in the 19th century, at this time it was believed by most biologists that evolution had some kind of direction.
In 1857 the physician Bénédict Morel influenced by Lamarckism claimed that environmental factors such as taking drugs or alcohol would produce degeneration in the offspring of those individuals, and would revert those offspring to a primitive state. Morel a devout Catholic had believed that mankind had started in perfection, contrasting modern humanity to the past, Morel claimed there had been "Morbid deviation from an original type". The theory of devolution, was later advocated by some biologists.
According to (Luckhurst, 2005):
Darwin soothed readers that evolution was progressive, and directed towards human perfectibility. The next generation of biologists were less confident or consoling. Using Darwin's theory, and many rival biological accounts of development then in circulation, scientists suspected that it was just as possible to devolve, to slip back down the evolutionary scale to prior states of development.
One of the first biologists to suggest devolution was Ray Lankester, he explored the possibility that evolution by natural selection may in somecases lead to devolution, an example he studied was the regressions in the life cycle of sea squirts. Lankester discussed the idea of devolution in his book Degeneration: A Chapter in Darwinism (1880). He was a critic of progressive evolution, pointing out that higher forms existed in the past which have since degenerated into simpler forms. Lankester argued that "if it was possible to evolve, it was also possible to devolve, and that complex organisms could devolve into simpler forms or animals".
Anton Dohrn also developed a theory of degenerative evolution based on his studies of vertebrates. According to Dohrn many chordates are degenerated because of their environmental conditions. Dohrn claimed cyclostomes such as lampreys are degenerate fish as there is no evidence their jawless state is an ancestral feature but is the product of environmental adaptation due to parasitism. According to Dohrn if cyclotomes would devolve further then they would resemble something like an Amphioxus.
Peter J. Bowler has written that devolution was taken seriously by proponents of orthogenesis and others in the late 19th century who at this period of time firmly believed that there was a direction in evolution. Orthogenesis was the belief that evolution travels in internally directed trends and levels. The paleontologist Alpheus Hyatt discussed the concept of devolution in his work, Hyatt used the concept of racial senility as the mechanism of devolution. Bowler defines racial senility as "an evolutionary retreat back to a state resembling that from which it began."
Hyatt who studied the fossils of invertebrates believed that up to a point ammonoids developed by regular stages up until a specific level but would later due to unfavourable conditions descend back to a previous level, this according to Hyatt was a form of lamarckism as the degeneration was a direct response to external factors. To Hyatt after the level of degeneration the species would then become extinct, according to Hyatt there was a "phase of youth, a phase of maturity, a phase of senility or degeneration foreshadowing the extinction of a type". To Hyatt the devolution was predetermined by internal factors which organisms can neither control or reverse. This idea of all evolutionary branches eventually running out of energy and degenerating into extinction was a pessimistic view of evolution and was unpopular amongst many scientists of the time.
Carl H. Eigenmann an ichthyologist wrote Cave vertebrates of America: a study in degenerative evolution (1909) in which he concluded that cave evolution was essentially degenerative. The entomologist William Morton Wheeler and the Lamarckian E.W. MacBride (1866-1940) also advocated degenerative evolution. According to Macbride invertebrates were actually degenerate vertebrates, his argument was based on the idea that "crawling on the seabed was inherently less stimulating than swimming in open waters."
 Dollo's lawMain article: Dollo's law Complex organs evolve in a lineage over many generations, and once lost they are unlikely to re-evolve. This observation is sometimes generalized to a hypothesis known as Dollo's law, which states that evolution is not reversible. This does not mean that similar engineering solutions cannot be found by natural selection. For instance the tail of the cetacea—whales, dolphins and porpoises which are evolved from formerly land-dwelling mammals—is an adaptation of the spinal column for propulsion in water. Unlike the tail of the mammal's marine ancestor, the Sarcopterygii, and the other teleosts, which move from side to side, the cetacean's tail moves up and down as it flexes its mammalian spine, but the function of the tail in providing propulsion is remarkably similar.
 Degeneration theory Johan Friedrich Blumenbach 1752 - 1840Johann Friedrich Blumenbach and other monogenists such as Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon were believers in the "Degeneration theory" of racial origins the theory claims that races can degenerate into "primitive" forms. Blumenbach claimed that Adam and Eve were white and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors such as the sun and poor dieting. Buffon believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race.
Blumenbach claimed Negroid pigmentation arose because of the result of the heat of the tropical sun. The cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos and the Chinese were fair skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns protected from environmental factors.
According to Blumenbach there are five races all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American and Malay. Blumenbach however stated:
I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
According to Blumenbach the other races are supposed to have degenerated from the Caucasian ideal stock. Blumenbach denied that his "Degeneration theory" was racist, he also wrote three essays claiming non-white peoples are capable of excelling in arts and sciences in reaction against racialists of his time who believed they couldn't.
 Use of the term by proponents of creationismAccording to Christian creationists, devolution is:
A theory of origins based on scripture which begins with the ultimate complexity of all living things at the time of creation. This was followed by degeneration and the break down of all living things on the genetic level beginning at the Curse (Genesis 3) and continuing to this day with increased momentum.
I clicked on the link: 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2%27,3%27-Cyclic-nucleotide_3%27-phosphodiesterase Then I looked up RNASE A: Ribonuclease A (RNase A) is a pancreatic ribonuclease that cleaves single-stranded RNA. Bovine pancreatic RNase A is one of the classic model systems of protein science.
History The importance of bovine pancreatic RNase A was secured when the Armour & Co. (of hot dog fame) purified a kilogram of it, and gave 10 mg samples away free to any interested scientists. The ability to have a single lot of purified enzyme instantly made RNase a predominant model system for protein studies.
RNase A was the model protein used to work out many spectroscopic methods for assaying protein structure, including absorbance, circular dichroism/optical rotary dispersion, Raman, EPR and NMR spectroscopy. RNase A was also the first model protein for the development of several chemical structural methods, such as limited proteolysis of disordered segments, chemical modification of exposed side chains, and antigenic recognition.
Ribonuclease-S, which is RNase A that has been treated with subtilisin, was the third protein to have its structure solved, in 1967.
Studies of the oxidative folding of RNase A led Chris Anfinsen to enunciate the thermodynamic hypothesis of protein folding, which states that the folded form of a protein represents the minimum of its free energy.
RNase A was the first protein for showing the effects of non-native isomers of X-Pro peptide bonds in protein folding.
RNase A was the first protein to be studied by multiple sequence alignment and by comparing the properties of evolutionarily related proteins. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribonuclease_A =======================================
ANG RNASE 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 12 and there is now a 13 I am trying to reconstruct this. will keep at it. the above are all involved in the RNase A mechanism.
========================== ANG: is angiogenen Human mast cells synthesize and release angiogenin, a member of the ribonuclease A (RNase A) superfamily
ANG: is angiogenenHuman mast cells synthesize and release angiogenin, a member of the ribonuclease A (RNase A) superfamily ANG: Entrez Gene summary for ANG:
The protein encoded by this gene is an exceedingly potent mediator of new blood vessel formation. It hydrolyzes cellular tRNAs resulting in decreased protein synthesis and is similar to pancreatic ribonuclease. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. This gene and the gene that encodes ribonuclease, RNase A family, 4 share promoters and 5' exons. Each gene splices to a unique downstream exon that contains its complete coding region. (provided by RefSeq)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ANGI_HUMAN, P03950 Function: May function as a tRNA-specific ribonuclease that abolishes protein synthesis by specifically hydrolyzing cellular tRNAs. Binds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. Angiogenin induces vascularization of normal and malignant tissues. Angiogenic activity is regulated by interaction with RNH1 in vivo Gene Wiki entry for ANG (Angiogenin) related to ALS as well...................................www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ANG
RNASE 1 Ribonuclease pancreatic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASE1 gene.
This gene encodes a member of the pancreatic-type of secretory ribonucleases, a subset of the ribonuclease A superfamily. The encoded endonuclease cleaves internal phosphodiester RNA bonds on the 3'-side of pyrimidine bases. It prefers poly(C) as a substrate and hydrolyzes 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides, with a pH optimum near 8.0. The encoded protein is monomeric and more commonly acts to degrade ss-RNA over ds-RNA. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and four transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNASE1 ==================================== RNASE 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RNAS2_HUMAN, P10153 Function: This is a non-secretory ribonuclease. It is a pyrimidine specific nuclease with a slight preference for U. Cytotoxin and helminthotoxin. Selectively chemotactic for dendritic cells. Possesses a wide variety of biological activities Gene Wiki entry for RNASE2 (Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin) www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RNASE2 ==================================
RNASE 3 Ribonuclease III double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific endoribonuclease that is involved in the initial step of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Component of the microprocessor complex that is required to process primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) to release precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) in the nucleus.
Within the microprocessor complex, DROSHA cleaves the 3' and 5' strands of a stem-loop in pri-miRNAs (processing center 11 bp from the dsRNA-ssRNA junction) to release hairpin-shaped pre-miRNAs that are subsequently cut by the cytoplasmic DICER to generate mature miRNAs. Involved also in pre-rRNA processing. Cleaves double-strand RNA and does not cleave single-strand RNA. Involved in the formation of GW bodies. Catalytic activity Endonucleolytic cleavage to 5'-phosphomonoester. Cofactor Magnesium or manganese By similarity.
Subunit structure Component of the microprocessor complex, or pri-miRNA processing protein complex, which is composed of DROSHA and DGCR8. The microprocessor complex may contain multiple subunit of DGCR8 and DROSHA. Interacts with DGCR8, SP1 and SNIP1. Interacts with SRRT/ARS2. Ref.3 Ref.8 Ref.16
Subcellular location Nucleus. Nucleus › nucleolus. Note: A fraction is translocated to the nucleolus during the S phase of the cell cycle. Localized in GW bodies (GWBs), also known as P-bodies.
Tissue specificity Ubiquitous. Domain The 2 RNase III domains form an intramolecular dimer where the domain 1 cuts the 3'strand while the domain 2 cleaves the 5'strand of pri-miRNAs, independently of each other.
These are including the above all part of the RNASE A mechanism.
================== RNASE 4
Human ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4): coding sequence, chromosomal localization and identification of two distinct transcripts in human somatic tissues. Rosenberg HF, Dyer KD. SourceLaboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Abstract We have isolated a unique genomic fragment encoding human ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4) of the mammalian ribonuclease gene family, whose members include pancreatic ribonuclease, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil cationic protein and angiogenin. We have determined that the coding sequence of RNase 4 resides on a single exon found on human chromosome 14. The mRNA encoding RNase 4 was detected by Northern analysis in a number of human somatic tissues, including pancreas, lung, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and placenta, but not brain; liver represents the most abundant source. Interestingly, the mRNA encoding RNase 4 is approximately 2 kb in length, which is approximately twice as large as the mRNAs encoding other members of this gene family. A larger (approximately 2.4 kb), second transcript was detected in hepatic, pancreatic and renal tissues. The approximately 2 kb RNase 4 mRNA was detected in cells of the human promyelocytic leukemia line, HL-60, that had been treated with dibutyryl-cAMP to promote neutrophilic differentiation. In contrast, no mRNA encoding RNase 4 could be detected in cells treated with phorbol myristic acid (PMA), an agent promoting differentiation toward monocyte/macrophages, suggesting the existence of elements regulating tissue specific expression of this gene.
Ribonuclease k6: Chromosomal Mapping and Divergent Rates of Evolution within the RNase A Gene Superfamily Madeleine S. Deming,1 Kimberly D. Dyer,1 Alan T. Bankier,2 Michael B. Piper,2 Paul H. Dear,2 and Helene F. Rosenberg1,3 1Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA; 2Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry Division, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK We have localized the gene encoding human RNase k6 to within ~120 kb on the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 by HAPPY mapping. With this information, the relative positions of the six human RNase A ribonucleases that have been mapped to this locus can be inferred. To further our understanding of the individual lineages comprising the RNase A superfamily, we have isolated and characterized 10 novel genes orthologous to that encoding human RNase k6 from Great Ape, Old World, and New World monkey genomes. Each gene encodes a complete ORF with no less than 86% amino acid sequence identity to human RNase k6 with the eight cysteines and catalytic histidines (H15 and H123) and lysine (K38) typically observed among members of the RNase A superfamily. Interesting trends include an unusually low number of synonymous substitutions (Ks) observed among the New World monkey RNase k6 genes. When considering nonsilent mutations, RNase k6 is a relatively stable lineage, with a nonsynonymous substitution rate of 0.40 × 10−9 nonsynonymous substitutions/ nonsynonymous site/year (ns/ns/yr). genome.cshlp.org/content/8/6/599.full.pdf ====================================
Here we report on the expression and function of RNase 7, one of the final RNase A superfamily ribonucleases identified in the human genome sequence. The human RNase 7 gene is expressed in various somatic tissues including the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and heart. Recombinant RNase 7 is ribonucleolytically active against yeast tRNA, as expected from the presence of eight conserved cysteines and the catalytic histidine–lysine– histidine triad which are signature motifs of this superfamily.
Further analysis reveals that the RNase 8 gene has incorporated non-silent mutations at an elevated rate (1.3 × 10–9 substitutions/site/year) and that orthologous RNase 8 genes from 6 of 10 primate species examined have been deactivated by frameshifting deletions or point mutations at crucial structural or catalytic residues. The ribonucleolytic activity of recombinant human RNase 8 is among the lowest of members of this superfamily and it exhibits neither antiviral nor antibacterial activities characteristic of some other RNase A ribonucleases. The rapid evolution, species-limited deactivation and tissue-specific expression of RNase 8 suggest a unique physiological function and reiterates the evolutionary plasticity of the RNase A superfamily.
To date, seven members of the RNase A superfamily have been identified in humans: RNase 1 (pancreatic RNase), RNase 2 (eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, EDN), RNase 3 (eosinophil cationic protein, ECP), RNase 4, RNase 5 (angiogenin), RNase 6 (k6) and RNase 7 (GenBank accession no. XM_033539; its function is under investigation). RNase A superfamily RNases exhibit diverse expression patterns and have varying catalytic activities against specific RNA substrates. They also exhibit a variety of physiological functions (2,10–13), including digestion of RNA released from foregut bacteria of herbivorous mammals (RNase 1), angiogenesis (RNase 5) and inhibition of viral infection (RNases 2 and 3). www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC101240/ ========================================
this one is non active: Aliases & Descriptions ribonuclease, RNase A family, 10 (non-active)1 2 RNASE91 2 ribonuclease 102 ribonuclease-like protein 102
Pancreatic ribonucleasea are pyrimidine-specific endonucleases found in high quantity in the pancreas of certain mammals and of some reptiles.
Specifically, the enzymes are involved in endonucleolytic cleavage of 3'-phosphomononucleotides and 3'-phosphooligonucleotides ending in C-P or U-P with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. Ribonuclease can unwind the DNA helix by complexing with single-stranded DNA; the complex arises by an extended multi-site cation-anion interaction between lysine and arginine residues of the enzyme and phosphate groups of the nucleotides.
Other proteins belonging to the pancreatic RNAse family include:
bovine seminal vesicle and brain ribonucleases; kidney non-secretory ribonucleases; liver-type ribonucleases; angiogenin, which induces vascularisation of normal and malignant tissues; eosinophil cationic protein, a cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with ribonuclease activity; and frog liver ribonuclease and frog sialic acid-binding lectin.
The sequence of pancreatic RNases contains four conserved disulfide bonds and three amino acid residues involved in the catalytic activity.
ExamplesHuman genes encoding proteins containing this domain includeANG, RNASE1, RNASE10, RNASE12, RNASE2, RNASE3, RNASE4, RNASE6, RNASE7, and RNASE8.
RNAs present in environmental A wide variety of non-coding RNAs have been identified in various species of organisms known to science. However, RNAs have also been identified in "metagenomics" sequences derived from samples of DNA or RNA extracted from the environment, which contain unknown species.
Initial work in this area detected homologs of known bacterial RNAs in such metagenome samples Many of these RNA sequences were distinct from sequences within cultivated bacteria, and provide the potential for additional information on the RNA classes to which they belong.
The distinct environmental sequences were exploited to detect previously unknown RNAs in the marine bacterium Pelagibacter ubique. P. ubique is extremely common in marine sequences. So sequences of DNA extracted from oceans, many of which are inevitably derived from species related to P. ubique, were exploited to facillitate the analysis of possible secondary structures of RNAs predicted in this species.
Subsequent studies identified novel RNAs exclusively using sequences extracted from environmental samples. The first study determined the sequences of RNAs directly extracted from microbial biomass in the Pacific Ocean.
The researches found that a large fraction of the total extracted RNA molecules did not appear to code for protein, but instead appear to conserve consistent RNA secondary structures.
A number of these were shown to belong to known small RNA sequence families, including riboswitches.
A larger fraction of these microbial small RNAs appeared to represent novel, non-coding small RNAs, not yet described in any databases. A second study used sequences of DNA extracted from various environments, and inferred the presence of conserved RNA secondary structures among some of these sequences. Both studies identified RNAs that were not present in then-available genome sequences of any known organisms, and determined that some of the RNAs were remarkably abundant.[
In fact, two of the RNA classes (the IMES-1 RNA motif and IMES-2 RNA motif) exceeded ribosomes in copy number, which is extremely unusual among RNAs in bacteria. IMES-1 RNAs were also determined to be highly abundant near the shore in the Atlantic Ocean using different techniques.
RNAs that were identified in environmental sequence samples include the IMES-1, IMES-3, IMES-4, Whalefall-1, potC, Termite-flg and Gut-1 RNA motifs.
These RNA structures have not been detected in the genome of any known species. The IMES-2 RNA motif, GOLLD RNA motif and manA RNA motif were discovered using environmental DNA or RNA sequence samples, and are present in a small number of known species. Additional non-coding RNAs are predicted in marine environments, although no specific conserved secondary structures have been published for these other candidates.
Other conserved RNA structures were originally detected using environmental sequence data, e.g., the glnA RNA motif, but were subsequently detected in numerous cultivated species of bacteria.
The discovery of RNAs that are not detected among currently known species mirrors findings of protein classes that are currently unique to environmental samples.
References^ Kazanov MD, Vitreschak AG, Gelfand MS (2007). "Abundance and functional diversity of riboswitches in microbial communities". BMC Genomics 8: 347. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-347. PMC 2211319. PMID 17908319. www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi? tool=pmcentrez&artid=2211319.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=RNAs_present_in_environmental_samples&oldid=355965190"
So, there ya have it...... Who was creating these RNAs?
Who released them in the environment?
Who figured it would be blamed on Chemtrails?
Who is hiding?
They are toxic to human RNAs........... the strands are
anti sense non coding artificial synthetic
In Chemtrails they are working on the nanoparticles, and the elements, like sequestering CO2 and dumping it in the stratosphere and it is making things worse, WHAT GOES UP COMES BACK DOWN! they are called cenospheres, made from coal burning soot, collected from filters that are supposed to stop the soot. So now geoengineering has to come along and fix the mistakes they made,(they want to use aluminum reflector discs) the other was releasing iron eating bacteria in the oceans. They did that long time ago.
So, lets find out what these RNA motifs are they found in the environment.
"metagenomics" sequences derived from samples of DNA or RNA extracted from the environment"?
Metagenomics is the study of metagenomes, genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. The broad field may also be referred to as environmental genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics. Traditional microbiology and microbial genome sequencing rely upon cultivated clonal cultures. Metagenomics offers a powerful lens for viewing the microbial world that has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world
What did they find? Let see what these are. They might come close to our organism.
IMES-1, IMES-3, IMES-4, Whalefall-1, potC, Termite-flg and Gut-1 RNA motifs GOLLD RNA motif and manA RNA motif Well time to find out!
Pelagibacter, with the single species P. ubique, was isolated in 2002 and given a specific name, although it has not yet been validly published according to the bacteriological code. It is an abundant member of the SAR11 clade in the phylum Alphaproteobacteria. SAR11 members are highly dominant organisms found in both salt and fresh water worldwide — possibly the most numerous bacteria in the world (perhaps 1028 individual cells) and were originally known only from their rRNA genes, which were first identified in environmental samples from the Sargasso Sea in 1990 by Stephen Giovannoni's laboratory in the Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University and later found in oceans worldwide.
It is rod or crescent shaped and one of the smallest self-replicating cells known, with a length of 0.37-0.89 µm and a diameter of only 0.12-0.20 µm.
It recycles dissolved organic carbon. It undergoes regular seasonal cycles in abundance - in summer reaching ~50% of the cells in the temperate ocean. Thus it plays a major role in the Earth's carbon cycle.Its discovery was the subject of "Oceans of Microbes", Episode 5 of "Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth" by PBS
===== Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria Class: Alphaproteobacteria Order: Rickettsiales Family: "Pelagibacteraceae" Genus: Pelagibacter Species: P. ubique Binomial name Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique Rappé et al. 2002
GenomeThe genome of P. ubique strain HTCC1062 was completely sequenced in 2005 showing that P. ubique has the smallest genome (1,308,759 bp) of any free living organism. The only species with smaller genomes are endocellular symbionts and parasites, such as Mycoplasma genitalium or Nanoarchaeum equitans
Non-coding RNAs have been identified in P. ubique through a bioinformatics screen of the published genome and metagenomic data. Examples of ncRNA found in this organisms include the SAM-V riboswitch, and other cis-regulatory elements like the rpsB motif.
 NameSee also: Bacterial taxonomy The name of the genus (Pelagibacter) stems from the Latin masculin noun pelagus ("sea") combined with the suffix -bacter (rod, bacterium), to mean "bacterium of the sea". The connecting vowel is an "i" and not an "o", as the first term is the Latin "pelagus" and not the Greek original πέλαγος (pelagos) (the word pelagus is a Greek word used in Latin poetry, it is a 2nd declension noun with an Greek-like irregular nominative plural pelagē and not pelagi). The name of the specific epithet (ubique) is a Latin adverb meaning "everywhere"; it should be noted species with the status Candidatus are not validly published so do not have to be grammatically correct, such as having specific epithets having to be adjectives or nouns in apposition in the nominative case or genitive nouns according to rule 12c of the IBCN.
The term "Candidatus" is used for proposed species for which the lack of information (cf.) prevents it from being a validated species according to the bacteriological code, such as deposition in two public cell repositories or lack of FAME analysis whereas "Cadidatus Pelagibacter ubique" is not in ATCC  and DSMZ , nor has analysis of lipids and quinones been conducted.
HTTC1062 is the type strain of the species Pelagibacter ubique, which in turn is the type species of the genus Pelagibacter,, which in turn is the type genus of the SAR11 clade or family "Pelagibacteraceae".
However, the species that use these RNAs are most closely related to known alphaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria. IMES-1 RNAs make up a significant portion of marine RNA transcripts and are exceptionally abundant in that over five times as many IMES-1 RNAs were found as ribosomes in RNAs sampled from the Pacific Ocean. Only two bacterial RNAs are known (6S RNA and transfer RNA) to be more highly transcribed than ribosomes. IMES-1 RNAs were also detected in abundance in Block Island Sound in the Atlantic Ocean.
The IMES-2 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was identified by a study based on metagenomics and bioinformatics, and the underlying RNA sequences were identified independently by a similar earlier study. These RNAs are present in environmental sequences, and when discovered were not known to be present in any cultivated species. However, an IMES-2 RNA has been detected in alphaproteobacterium HIMB114, which is classified in the SAR11 clade of marine bacteria. This finding fits with earlier predictions that species that use IMES-2 RNAs are most closely related to alphaproteobacteria. IMES-2 RNAs are exceptionally abundant, as twice as many IMES-2 RNAs were found as ribosomes in RNAs sampled from the Pacific Ocean. Only two bacterial RNAs are known (6S RNA and transfer RNA) to be more highly transcribed than ribosomes.
The IMES-2 RNA secondary structure contains four stem-loop structures and one pseudoknot.
The IMES-3 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was identified based on metagenomics and bioinformatics, and the underlying RNA sequences were identified independently by an earlier study. These RNAs are present in environmental sequences, and as of 2009 are not known to be present in any cultivated species. IMES-3 RNAs are abundant in comparison to ribosomes in RNAs sampled from the Pacific Ocean
The Whalefall-1 RNA motif (also called wf-1) refers to a conserved RNA structure that was discovered using bioinformatics. Structurally, the motif consists of two stem-loops (see diagram), the second of which is often terminated by a CUUG tetraloop, which is an energetically favorable RNA sequence. Whalefall-1 RNAs are found only in DNA extracted from uncultivated bacteria found on whale fall, i.e., a whale carcass. As of 2010, Whalefall-1 RNAs have not been detected in any known, cultivated species of bacteria, and are thus one of several RNAs present in environmental samples.
A whale fall was first observed by marine biologists led by University of Hawaii oceanographer Craig Smith in 1987, discovered accidentally by the submersible Alvin using scanning sonar at 1,240 m (4,070 ft) in Santa Catalina, California Basin. Whale falls have since been found by other scientists, and by military submarines. They can be found by using side-scan sonar to examine the ocean floor for large aggregations of matter.
The first sign that whale carcasses could host specialized animal communities came in 1854 when a new mussel species was extracted from a piece of floating whale blubber. Beginning in the 1960s, deep sea trawlers unintentionally recovered other new mollusc species including limpets (named Osteopelta) attached to whale bones.
The RNA is detected only in genome sequences derived from DNA that was extracted from uncultivated marine bacteria. Thus, this RNA is present in environmental samples, but not yet found in any cultivated organism. potC RNAs are located in the presumed 5' untranslated regions of genes predicted to encode either membrane transport proteins or peroxiredoxins. Therefore, it was hypothesized that potC RNAs are cis-regulatory elements, but their detailed function is unknown.
A number of other RNAs were identified in the same study, including:
The Termite-flg RNA motif (also called tg-flg) is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. Genomic sequences corresponding to Termite-flg RNAs have been identified only in uncultivated bacteria present in the termite hindgut. As of 2010 it has not been identified in the DNA of any cultivated species, and is thus an example of RNAs present in environmental samples.
Termite-flg RNAs are consistently located in what is presumed to be the 5' untranslated regions of genes that encode proteins whose functions relate to flagella. The RNAs are hypothesized to regulate these genes in an unknown mechanism.
Gut-1 RNA motifs These RNAs are present in environmental sequences, and as of 2010 are not known to be present in any species that has been grown under laboratory conditions. Gut-1 RNA is exclusively found in DNA from uncultivated bacteria present in samples from the human gut.
Giant, Ornate, Lake- and Lactobacillales-Derived (GOLLD) RNA is a conserved RNA structure present in bacteria. GOLLD RNAs were originally detected based on metagenome sequences of DNA isolated from Lake Gatun in Panama. However, they are known to be present in at least eight strains of cultivated bacteria. GOLLD RNAs are extraordinarily large compared to other RNAs with a conserved, complex secondary structure, and average roughly 800 nucleotides. Such large, complex RNAs are often ribozymes, although the biochemical function of GOLLD RNAs remains unknown. The discovery of large RNAs like GOLLD RNAs among bacteria that are mostly uncultivated under laboratory conditions suggests that many other unusually large RNAs might be found in bacteria that have not yet been studied.
The GOLLD RNA in Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 was studied experimentally. This GOLLD RNA is apparently encoded by a prophage, and its transcription is increased during the phage lytic cycle. Therefore, this GOLLD RNA presumably serves a function that is useful to the phage during this process. GOLLD RNAs are often located near transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and in some cases a tRNA is predicted to be inside the GOLLD RNA structure itself. However, the biological reason underlying this association is not understood.
The Rfam model of GOLLD RNA uses only the 3' half of GOLLD, as this region of the full RNA is highly consistent in its structure.
The manA RNA motif (also called manA) refers to a conserved RNA structure that was identified by bioinformatics. Instances of the manA RNA motif were detected in bacteria in the genus Photobacterium and phages that infect certain kinds of cyanobacteria. However, most predicted manA RNA sequences are derived from DNA collected from uncultivated marine bacteria. Almost all manA RNAs are positioned such that they might be in the 5' untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, and therefore it was hypothesized that manA RNAs function as cis-regulatory elements. Given the relative complexity of their secondary structure, and their hypothesized cis-regulatory role, they might be riboswitches.
The genes thought to be regulated by manA RNAs are most typically those involved in the metabolism of the sugars fructose and mannose, synthesis of nucleotides, bacterial photosynthesis and a class of protein chaperones known as ibpA. manA RNAs are also often adjacent to transfer RNAs, and are likely transcribed with them. Although these genes are not thought of as typical of phages, it has previously been observed that phages infecting cyanobacteria commonly incorporate such genes.
Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria Class: Gammaproteobacteria Order: Vibrionales Family: Vibrionaceae Genus: Photobacterium Species P. leiognathi P. phosphoreum P. profundum P. damselae subsp. piscicida P. damselae subsp. damsela
Photobacterium is a genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Members of the genus are bioluminescent, that is they have the ability to emit light.
Many species, including Photobacterium leiognathi and Photobacterium phosphoreum, live in symbiosis with marine organisms.
Species such as Photobacterium profundum are adapted for optimal growth in the deep cold seas making it both a psychrophile (an organism capable of growth and reproduction in cold temperatures) and a piezophile (an organism which thrives at high pressures).
So, just knowing that many are out there makes you wonder why no one was keeping track of the new species. that Venter and Hamilton and Fox and whoever was throwing out?
Just let nature take care of it?
Rubbish! When they do not belong in the environments they are being put in.
And then along comes the synthetic, which is not biological? or is hybridized.
so, hybridized inorganic RNA or PNAs or Oligos. the sugar ones. not real sugar is rubber sugar.. found some in my gut=1 Rna in the "toilet" It was rubber, really, unless the licorice I ate turned to rubber.
RNA gone Wild!
Okay, nap time! ta ta for now.
Did I actually accomplish anything? I feel RNA and DNA is the motile genetic material floating all around us.
It is, in our houses, in our ears, in our hair, in our toilets, going into the streams. Not your normal excretions. A little plastic here and there, a bit of rubber, a metal coil, an aluminum disc, a barium plug , you name it. We are the environment, the environment is us.
the evo environmental wackos covering their clean plastic arses. They now cannot tell the difference between sythethic poop and real poop.
WHICH IS NORMAL. POOP makes the plants grow,
THESE eees evolutionary environemental ecologists are more concerned about there abbreviations than life itself EEEs or the new high tech IEEES....Add some ethics to the genocidal program.
Just put it in the environement, because we have to plasticize it so there is no more biological pollution.
Oh, the IMMORATAL CELL is made of Plastic, because you cannot degrade it. So, you will live a long time with all those neoplastics in you. Just eat it. That is what we are doing.
Pretty soon we will be pooping plastic toys for the cats and dogs.
Okay, here is the thing: POL I II and III are transcription activation factors:
Non coding RNA is not the usual RNA. ================================= A brief history of Activator RNA. Abstract:
Several non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate eukaryotic mRNA transcription have recently been discovered. Their mechanisms of action and biological roles are extremely diverse, which indicates that, so far, we have only had a glimpse of this new class of regulatory factor. Many surprises are likely to be revealed as further ncRNA transcriptional regulators are identified and characterized.
A new paradigm has emerged in biology in which RNA molecules are active participants in regulating, catalysing and controlling many reactions that define fundamental processes in cells — roles that in the not-so-distant past had been reserved for proteins.
In general, RNAs that have such regulatory functions do not encode a protein and are therefore referred to as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs).
Eukaryotic ncRNAs are transcribed from the genome by one of three nuclear, DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pol I, II or III).
They then elicit their biological responses through one of three basic mechanisms: catalysing biological reactions, binding to and modulating the activity of a protein, or base-pairing with a target nucleic acid.
For the first two mechanisms, ncRNAs fold into unique higher-order structures that are required for their function, much like a protein (Fig. 1).
Many ncRNAs become integral parts of large complexes that contain proteins, and possibly other RNAs, and the components of the complex function together as a unit (for example, the ribosome).
ncRNAs have been shown to participate actively in many of the diverse biological reactions that encompass gene expression, such as splicing, mRNA turnover, gene silencing and translation.
Notably, several studies have recently revealed that ncRNAs also actively regulate eukaryotic mRNA transcription, which is a key point for the control of gene expression.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can trigger transcriptional silencing by regulating chromatin structure. The earliest characterized example of ncRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing in eukaryotes was the transcriptional inactivation of the second X chromosome in females (dosage compensation). This involves a rather large ncRNA known as X-inactive-specific transcript (Xist). The presence of Xist on the X chromosome is crucial for maintaining the inactive state, but its precise mechanism of action is unclear .
More recently, short ncRNAs have been shown to target the structure of chromatin to silence gene expression, in addition to triggering mRNA degradation and blocking translation . The ncRNAs that are involved are typically 21–28 nucleotides in length, are collectively referred to as microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and function by targeting homologous sequences in genes . RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing was initially characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, was later shown to occur in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Tetrahymena thermophila, and was most recently found in human cells, which shows that this mechanism of controlling mRNA transcription is conserved
......DNA methyltransferase and histone methyltransferase that methylate DNA and histone proteins, respectively, which results in the silencing of transcription from the targeted regions of the genome . siRNAs can therefore direct the gene-specific regulation of chromatin modifications, and thereby control transcription
the four eukaryotic ncRNAs that are known to target activators and repressors elicit transcriptional control using distinct mechanisms:
by functioning as a co-activator, by changing the regulatory properties of a repressor, by regulating the oligomerization and activity of an activator, and by controlling the intracellular localization of an activator.
SRA functions as a co-activator NRSE RNA changes a repressor. NRON RNA regulates nuclear trafficking. Targeting general factors
include the transcription factors TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH, which facilitate the formation of functional initiation complexes with Pol II at promoters .
It also includes factors such as TFIIS and P-TEFb (positive transcription-elongation factor-b), which facilitate transcript elongation
U1 RNA stimulates initiation.
7SK RNA modulates elongation.
Targeting Pol II
The Pol II core enzyme contains 12 protein subunits.
Using RNA aptamers to control RNA polymerase II transcription
B2 RNA represses transcript synthesis.
Structure of an aptamer–Pol-II complex.
An ncRNA-docking site on Pol II.
The first RNA that was found to bind to a mammalian Pol II with high affinity and specificity was not B2 RNA but, rather, a synthetic RNA. We found that a 20-nucleotide RNA that was composed entirely of guanosines (20G-oligo)
"Systems biology is a perfect example of a new multidisciplinary field. It combines the work of mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, bioinformaticians, biochemists, molecular biologists, cell biologists, and geneticists. Even a philosophy major could probably slip into the team undetected for a little while!"............
"Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs as Positive or Negative Enhancers".
Are ncRNAs the missing piece of the cancer jigsaw puzzle? One of the emerging themes in the study of noncoding transcripts is microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory RNAs that mediate posttranscriptional silencing of specific target mRNAs (3). The identification of the miRNA miR-34 as the direct target of the tumor suppressor gene p53 (4) revealed for the first time that ncRNAs function in this crucial tumor suppressor pathway. Numerous miRNA expression profiling and functional studies have also associated miRNAs with cancer progression, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment (5, 6). Therefore, the interplay between proteins and ncRNAs is an important topic in the field of cancer biology, and ncRNAs may be the missing links in well-known oncogenic and tumor suppressor networks. Long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs), which range in size from several hundred to tens of thousands of bases, comprise another class of newly discovered ncRNAs. Here we provide an update and perspective on recent advances made in understanding lincRNA mechanisms in cancer progression.
LincRNA Expression and Cancer:
Although >3,000 human lincRNAs have been identified, less than 1% of these have been characterized (7–9). Recent studies showed that lincRNAs are exquisitely regulated during development and in response to diverse signaling cues (8) and can be misexpressed in solid tumors and leukemias (10). Numerous HOX lincRNAs were found to be differently expressed between primary breast carcinomas and distant metastases (11), and many p53-dependent lincRNAs were identified in response to DNA damage (12). The finding that several lincRNAs can control transcriptional alteration implies that the difference in lincRNA profiling between normal and cancer cells is not merely the secondary effect of cancer transformation, and that lincRNAs are strongly associated with cancer progression (13). Thus, the differential expression of lincRNAs may be profiled to aid in cancer diagnosis and prognosis and in the selection of potential therapeutics.
The lessons of history The central role of RNA in translation. It was clear by the 1950s that although DNA was located in the eukaryotic nucleus, proteins were being synthesized in the cytoplasm in the presence of abundant RNA21,22.Most of this cellular RNA could be found in discrete particles in the cytoplasm23,which were later shown to be the site of protein synthesis and called ribosomes24. James Watson sketched the “central dogma” as early as 1952 (REFS 25,26), imagining that there must be a coding RNA that is passed from the DNA to the protein synthetic machinery in the cytoplasm. The prevailing theory was the now-forgotten “one gene, one ribosome, one protein” hypothesis24,27 that each gene produced a specialized ribosome composed of a specific mRNA that was associated with general ribosomal proteins that catalysed translation. Various results undermined this hypothesis, including the simple observation that although genes came in a great variety of sizes and base compositions, ribosomal RNAs had no variety27. Finally, ribosomes were found to be general-purpose RNA/protein machines, composed largely of stable rRNAs28, and programmed with various unstable mRNAs that are only a small fraction of the total RNA population27,29. The second class of functional RNA was predicted by Francis Crick’s “adaptor”hypothesis24.Crick predicted the existence of a molecule that mediates between the triplet genetic code and the encoded amino acid. Interestingly, Crick argued not only that the adaptor would be an RNA, but also that RNA would be evolutionarily preferred over protein as the material for his adaptors, because base pairing made RNA uniquely suited for a role as a small, specific RNA recognition molecule24. Crick’s adaptors had in fact just been biochemically observed by Mahlon Hoagland and co-workers30. These RNAs later proved to be Crick’s adaptors — the transfer RNAs.
1- Synthetic RNA regulatory networks and self-assembly of bacterial RNA.
We study the properties of small regulatory circuits primary based on RNAs and their interactions. In particular, we have used synthetic biology approaches coupled to advanced RNA dynamics simulations (Kinefold server, movies 1 & 2) to design efficient RNA-based repressor (Fig.1A) and activator modules (Fig.1B). These modules control RNA transcription "on the fly" through simple RNA-RNA antisense interactions, Fig1.
Fig 1. RNA synthetic biology
We also discovered that a small bacterial RNA of Escherichia coli could self-assemble, like many proteins do, to form long filaments as well as novel RNA-based nanostructures, Fig2. This finding further extends the already great versality of natural RNA functions.
Fig 2. Novel nanostructures made of DsrA ncRNA of E.coli
2- Evolution of large biomolecular networks
We are also interested in the properties of large biomolecular networks and their evolution due to genomic duplication-divergence processes at the level of individual gene or whole genome duplications, Fig.3.
Our group, composed of organic and polymer chemists, designs low molecular weight molecules and polymers which, by self-assembly, produce ‘intelligent' (or ‘smart') materials that respond by changing shape, size or permeability, or by moving towards external stimuli such as temperature, light, magnetic field or electric field.
Our goal is to develop biomimetic systems such as responsive micro-structured surfaces on which living cells can move; responsive polymer vesicles that can be used as drug delivery vectors or as biomimetic cells, and artificial molecular motors for nanomachines that can be used in medicine.
To build our intelligent materials we are using organic synthesis and controlled polymerisation methods such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATPR) and ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). To study the properties of the artificial systems we construct, we work in collaboration with physicists from our laboratory or outside using physical chemistry instrumentation.
Also, we have synthesised hydrophilic-hydrophobic block copolymers in which the hydrophobic block is made of a responsive liquid crystalline polymer. These diblock copolymers self-assemble in water to form micro- or nano-objects such as polymersomes (Fig. 2), nanotubes (Fig. 3) or nanofibres (Fig. 4).
Fig.4: Nanofibers with lamellar fine structure formed by an amphiphilic LC block copolymer containing a cholesteryl-based mesogen. Left: TEM with negative staining, scale bar : 200 nm. Right: cryo-TEM, scale bar : 100 nm.
We are elaborating an artificial molecular system by drawing our inspiration from a myosin walking onto an actin filament. Such a molecular motor should be able to make mechanics work owing to reversible structural changes produced by outer stimuli. The knowledge of laws which govern its running could throw light on the working of analogous biological motors.
tash: Hi skizit, I have watched all your videos on youtube and cant thank you enough for all you have educated me on. I cry for you alot and a bit for me. I was wanting to send you photos of what is raining down everyday here in Australia in hope you can tell me
Dec 11, 2019 23:28:22 GMT -5
tash: not sure where to send them as hush mail and rocket mail bounced back
Dec 11, 2019 23:30:03 GMT -5