Air Pollution and Your Health Dec 17, 2011 2:10:53 GMT -5
Post by skyship on Dec 17, 2011 2:10:53 GMT -5
I think the ions issue is right.
Kammy, oh yeah....I think they are called Cenospheres? from coal burning soot. So the filters collected this so could be used for buckyballs? Fullerenes are made of coal burning or carbon soot.
Novel: meaning created form.......
A novel form of carbon micro-balls from coal
The SEM observation shows that the novel carbon material exists in various forms such as individual balls, net-like and plate-like forms, all of which have a quite smooth surface. The diameters of these carbon spheres are quite uniform and in a narrow range of 10–20 μm. The EDS analysis reveals that the ball-like carbon material contains more than 99.5% of carbon and a little amount of other elements such as nickel, silicon and aluminum. The XRD and UV–Raman results reveal that the novel carbon material is a kind of highly graphitized carbon. The growth mechanism of the ball-like carbon material was proposed and discussed in terms of arc plasma parameters and the chemical structure of coal-based carbon.
Author Keywords: A. Carbon microbeads, Coal; B. Arc discharge; C. Scanning electron microscopy
A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere filled with inert air or gas, typically produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants. The color of cenospheres varies from gray to almost white and their density is about 0.4–0.8 g/cm³, which gives them a great buoyancy. Cf. glass microspheres.
Cenospheres are hard and rigid, light, waterproof, innoxious, and insulative. This makes them highly useful in a variety of products, notably fillers. Cenospheres are now used as fillers in cement to produce low density concrete. Recently, some manufacturers have begun filling metals and polymers with cenospheres to make lightweight composite materials with higher strength than other types of foam materials. Such composite materials are called syntactic foam. Aluminum-based syntactic foams are finding applications in the automotive sector.
Silver-coated cenospheres are used in conductive coatings, tiles and fabrics. Another use is in conductive paints for antistatic coatings and electromagnetic shielding.
the process of burning coal in thermal power plants produces fly ash containing ceramic particles made largely of alumina and silica. These particles form a part of the fly ash produced in the burning process. They are produced at the high temperature of 1,500 to 1,750 degrees Celsius through complicated chemical and physical transformation. Their chemical composition and structure varies considerably depending on the composition of coal that generated them.
The ceramic particles in fly ash have three types of structures. The first type of particles are solid and are called precipitator. The second type of particles are hollow and are called cenospheres. The third type of particles are called plerospheres, which are hollow particles of large diameter filled with smaller size precipitator and cenospheres. Due to the hollow structure cenospheres have low density.
Effects of plerospheres on the atomic oxygen resistance of a phenolic resin composite
References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Mingzhu Wang, Xiaohu Zhao, Zhigang ShenCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Shulin Ma and Yushan Xing
School of Aeronautics Science and Technology, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, PR China
Received 27 February 2004;
revised 10 June 2004;
accepted 12 June 2004.
Available online 8 August 2004.
A new technology is adopted to improve atomic oxygen resistance characteristics of spacecraft resin matrix composites, which is to fill superfine particles into the resin matrix. The superfine plerospheres, which are non-reactive with atomic oxygen, are filled into the phenolic matrix in order to produce the AO-resistant fibre/phenolic resin composite in the paper. Plerospheres/fiber/phenolic resin composites were prepared and the AO exposure test was conducted in a ground-based AO effects simulation facility. It was found that the filling of plerospheres effectively protected the fibre/phenolic resin against AO erosion. After the AO exposure test of 50–60 h, the erosion yield of the glass fibre/phenolic resin and the carbon fibre/phenolic resin with plerosphere fillers could decrease to 9% and 13% of the composite without fillers, respectively. Furthermore, the erosion yield of all the composites decreased with the increase of the filler amount.
Keywords: Plerosphere; Spacecraft; Fibre/phenolic resin composite; AO-resistant