No, I haven't Sky, I just watched it. I believe that the Universities are bought and paid for and will publish any kind of scientific statement that supports their agendas. We have been told for some time that solar flares are due to go through an 11 year period that we're just entering.
I believe that the ecocidists have made the earth weaker in so many ways in various sectors that all that will be required to do someday is to light a match at the wrong time somewhere in the world to annihilate the entire planet. The earth is appearing to become more and more fragile with daily added pollution levels.
It would be so easy to blame a solar flare heating the earth's crops rather than industrial pollution to mask the true cause of any kind of agriculture tragedy? A solar flare to ignite a natural gas main, a nuclear facility, everyone all of a sudden with sun-caused skin lesions or cancer... on and on - convenient, isn't it?
As far as the natural radioactive metals inside of us - yes, it's as if someone has a dream legacy to leave behind their life's work calling card to leave their permanent mark - a mutated human race that will forever carry their created genetics, a fiber product as part of our skin... buckyballs instead of intercellular vesicles... a change to our natural metals and minerals... hollow hair... a GM parasite creature to forever wander in our bloodstreams and men's semen... yes, the stuff our good scientists have been planning and plotting for us for years.
AND... if the solar flares don't mess us up totally - then Planet X or Aliens attacking us... will! There's always going to be a good cover...
"The ESP will be placed off New England's coast in spring 2011 and will act as both observatory and early-warning system, alerting researchers to the beginnings of blooms, or population explosions, of Alexandrium fundyense, a toxin-producing single-celled alga. Scientists now search for such harmful algal blooms (HABs) by chartering boats, taking water samples, and laboriously identifying and counting cells under a microscope."
See our crystal and micelle artifact matches in the background of this photo below?:
"Although the algae in the water pose no direct threat to human beings, toxins produced by Alexandrium can accumulate in filter-feeding organisms such as mussels and clams, which can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans who consume them. In order to protect public health, shellfish beds are monitored by state agencies and closed when toxin concentrations rise above a quarantine level. There have been no illnesses from legally harvested shellfish in recent years despite some severe blooms."
"The researchers found that certain species of bacteria form a mutually-beneficial relationship with the algae that promotes the growth of each. The bacteria release a chemical which helps the algae absorb iron, a critical nutrient for photosynthesis. The algae, in turn, release organic compounds to support the growth of the bacteria.
The study also offers new insight for climate change models, since dimethylsulfide, a gas produced by the bloom-forming algae, plays a critical role in the process of cloud formation and the ability of clouds to reflect sunlight back into space. The degree to which light is reflected in turn influences solar heating of the Earth, affecting global climate."
Question: What bacteria are those that form this 'mutually-beneficial relationship'?
"The highest diversity was observed in the bacteria±Alexandrium co-culture inoculated with a 10 ±1 dilution of the BOF bacterial assemblage (corresponding to 10 ll of the original assemblage sample), which contained sequences related to:
Alteromonas sp. str. KE10 and Alteromonas macleodii (sequence Alt-1); Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (Alt-2); a marine psychrophile strain SW17 and Flavobacterium sp. str. 5 N3 (Flv-1); a marine psychrophile strain IC076 (Cyt-1); and a 16S rDNA sequence retrieved from a marine aggregate, agg58 (Delong et al. 1993) (Cyt-2).
Both Alt-1 and sequences related to Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii were found in cultures inoculated with 10 ±2 and 10 ±3 dilutions of the BOF assemblage (Alt-3 and Alt-4). Alt-1, the sequence related to Alteromonas sp. str. KE10 and A. macleodii, was found in all co-cultures in which A. fundyense growth was enhanced, and was the only sequence found in the highest active dilution (10 ±4 ) of the BOF assemblage.
e A. fundyense-promoting bacteria were associated with particles. This result is not surprising as all of the growth-promoting assemblages included members of the family Alteromonadaceae, which is known to include effective colonizers of particulates, including algal cells DGGE and sequence analysis of A. fundyense-promoting bacterial assemblages provided evidence that Alt-1 was involved in A. fundyense stimulation. The Alt-1 sequence was found in all co-cultures that promoted A. fundyense growth.
Phylogenetic analysis of Alt-1 placed it within the genus Alteromonas (Fig. 5), which, together with the genus Pseudoalteromonas, comprises the family Alteromonadaceae. This family consists exclusively of marine bacteria, and includes many members known to interact closely with algae in both mutualistic and antagonistic relationships. Alteromonas species have been isolated from Alexandrium tamarense (Doucette and Trick 1995), Gymnodinium breve (Buck and Pierce 1989) and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Stewart et al 1997) cultures, and have been implicated in the production of paralytic shell®sh toxins (Doucette and Trick 1995; Levasseur et al. 1996). Alteromonas macleodii has also been found to release an alginate lyase that produced plant growth promoting oligosaccharides from alginate, a polymer commonly found in algal cells (Natsume et al. 1994). Analysis of native microbial communities has indicated that Alteromonas spp. are widely distributed in both pelagic and coastal environments (Gauthier and Breittmayer 1992; Pukall et al. 1999) and tend to be associated with marine particulates or eukaryotes (Dang and Lovell 2000; Eilers et al. 2000). Members of both the Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas genera possess several characteristics that enable them to interact closely with algae."
"Along a stretch of Highway 21, in Texas' pastoral Hill Country, is a vegetative wasteland. Trees are barren, or covered in gray, dying foliage and peeling bark. Fallen, dead limbs litter the ground where pecan growers and ranchers have watched trees die slow, agonizing deaths.
Visible above the horizon is what many plant specialists, environmentalists and scientists believe to be the culprit: the Fayette Power Project — a coal-fired power plant for nearly 30 years has operated mostly without equipment designed to decrease emissions of sulfur dioxide, a component of acid rain.
The plant's operator and the state's environmental regulator deny sulfur dioxide pollution is to blame for the swaths of plant devastation across Central Texas. But evidence collected from the Appalachian Mountains to New Mexico indicates sulfur dioxide pollution kills vegetation, especially pecan trees. Pecan growers in Albany, Ga., have received millions of dollars in an out-of-court settlement with a power plant whose sulfur dioxide emissions harmed their orchards."
I see on that Lymebuster page where Skytroll made a reference to Beauvaria Bassianna. I believe I read somewhere that the diatoms or species from Antarctica cause or become on a giant scale. Some of our artifacts are on a giant size scale... I believe that something from Antarctica is also involved based on this and most of us have looked at Beauvaria Bassianna in the past as very, very suspicious.
"The fear is that the product of any such union could end up being a fungal version of Rosemary's baby.
"The obvious risk," said Jonathan Jones, who manages the sudden oak death program for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, "is that there could be sexual recombination, and we could end up with something worse than what we have."
The symposium, which ended Friday, marks only the second time the world's top sudden oak death scientists have been brought together to discuss the disease, known scientifically as Phytophthora ramorum. "
I know it sounds like we're jumping around and we are... but - the way I see this is... the particles come into our bodies in the form of food, air, water, chemicals we touch... etc. as these nano-sized, invisible spheres - and they grow in size, then - inside of them... can be most anything! At a certain stage, they start blooming, budding, dividing, reproducing, etc... there's at least a dozen different pathogenic factors inside these 'carbon balls'.
As an example - I'm SURE... some have been used in our food processing and are regarded as safe... well - they may have been safe by themselves in the past, but they aren't any more.
What used to be able for our immune system to fight off is no longer true. So, the doctors may not even test for what has been the status quo in the past. As an example, we've may have our own natural body mites attacking us. There's all sorts of bacteria on the skin naturally, in some cases - it's attacking us now, where it didn't in the past. A fungus used safely to make bread or wine for 100 years may now be attacking us. Why? Because either our immune systems cannot handle the overload or we have something introduced that has caused everything to go haywire and now even the 'natural' is a tax on our immune systems.
We haven't talked about the immune system much yet... it's the key in helping us cope better. We need to look at how to boost it, I believe, some indicators of what is going wrong is in our case study at the morgellons.org site?
Has there been another thread or does someone have good knowledge about immune boosting?
"Doctors and the AMA tend not to recognize the mechanism of many things associated with environmental effects degrading the human immune resistance. They tend to avoid anything and everything that causally tracks back to industrial emissions."
I just noted on another thread... that 2 + 2 should equal ?:
I ask myself... who owns the Insurance Companies - shall we guess? Who is dictating to the doctors certain testing protocols... the Insurance Companies... how many diseases are there which have no known cause?... it's 2010 and we don't know what causes dandruff, psoriasis, eczema... and a thousand other diseases...?
I'm betting $1,000 that dandruff, psoriasis, eczema, etc., etc., can all be linked to industrial emissions or fallout!
Let's see how this works?... the very people that are polluting the world own our health insurance companies... the polluters are in control of our Insurance, FDA, AMA... and doctors and scientists.... they are making us sick at high speeds but are telling the doctors to ignore our illnesses, they can't spend the insurance companys' money (which is really our money) looking because there is no known cause nor cure (as per the AMA's bible? and this 'bible gathering' research is funded and overseen by whom?) - and to give us a symptom cream to cover it up because there's too many of us on the planet and they purposefully want us dead anyway...
I wanted to note the DMS(P) particles in the background of this ocean algae also... I'm still trying to find some ocean organisms that match ours. Our main 'fungus' is most likely a mixture, I'm wondering about the natural algae wrapped up inside our spheres, since I am seeing matches:
Oceanography Researchers Discover Toxic Algae in Open Water
Not so much the Pseudo-nitzschia... but look at the carbon micelles in the background:
"diatom Pseudo-nitzschia -- an alga that produces the neurotoxin, domoic acid, or DA...
The presence of these potent toxins in deep water environments is worrisome, given that in coastal waters, where the phenomenon has been studied, DA can enter the food chain, forcing the closure of some fisheries and poisoning marine mammals and birds that feed on the contaminated fish. The main concern, though, is that the adding of iron to ocean waters -- one of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce global warming -- appears now to likely result in promoting toxic blooms in the ocean.
Because both natural and artificial iron additions in open ocean waters can result in phytoplankton blooms in large areas of the sea that are deficient in the metal, and also because phytoplankton take up carbon dioxide and iron in addition to seawater, it has been suggested as a remedy to combat global warming. Basically, the new growth of photosynthetic cells draws carbon dioxide into the sea, reducing the amount of this gas in the atmosphere and thus reducing its warming effect. However, Pseudo-nitzschia-like cells have been known for a while to be common responders in a number of iron fertilization experiments conducted at sea over more than a decade."
** They are adding iron to the oceans? No wonder we're rusting... if they'd quit spilling the oil, they could stop adding the iron?
"Some of the samples received by the FWC had what she called “ulcer-like lesions,” which, according to Segelson, isn’t necessarily a new phenomenon: “There’s a history of these kind of lesions appearing in the St. Johns River, periodically seen in menhaden and other estuarine species since the 1980s. Those lesions were caused by a fungus, and the histology will test to see if a similar fungus is the root cause of this fish kill.”"
Question: Is what this fungus is ever been noted anywhere? What do the fish lesions look like?
Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop ulcerous skin lesions that have been attributed to exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida toxins. The characteristic lesions present as deep penetrating circular ulcers with intense granulomatous inflammation. There, however, is controversial evidence that the lesions are caused by an oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces sp., either as a primary or secondary invader. The fungus is almost always associated with the lesions, with hyphae penetrating the tissues and organs of the infected fish.
Biological and environmental stressors appear central to the etiology of ulcers on menhaden. We hypothesize that the development of the disease requires some initiating stressor(s) that erode, damage or penetrate the epidermis and expose the underlying dermis. Recent experiments with striped bass and tilapia exposed to sublethal levels of P. piscicida indicate that fish experience an initial loss of the epidermis. The goal of the project is to identify the interrelationships between menhaden, Pfiesteria, and Aphanomyces, and the environmental conditions that may modulate or contribute to the epizootics of ulcers on the fish.
The fungus Aphanomyces sp. has recently been shown to be present in all of the lesions presumptively due to Pfiesteria piscicida exposure. This study will determine whether the fungus is the primary cause of the lesions, or whether prior trauma through exposure to toxins or environmental conditions are required for fungal invasion."
Fish, like mammals, are susceptible to a variety of environmental stressors which may directly cause, or indirectly predispose, them to develop different types of lesions. These stressors may be biological (bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic), chemical (pollutants, toxins, suboptimal water quality, hormonal changes due to photoperiod or breeding) and/or physical (rapid water temperature change, trauma). Disease outbreaks and mortality occur naturally in all wild populations. What causes concern, however, is when huge numbers (i.e., hundreds of thousands) of fish exhibiting lesions, morbidity, or death occur in a relatively short time period. Such is the case for fish kills co-occurring during toxic blooms of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates. A toxic dinoflagellate (or algal) bloom is a notable increase in cell numbers (density) and predominance of at least one harmful dinoflagellate species. Since Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates do not always produce toxin (1), the mere presence of these dinoflagellates may not necessarily be harmful."
"Common Diseases of Cultured Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis, and Its Hybrid (M. saxitilis x M. chrysops)
Parasitic infestations are a common problem in striped bass culture and may have harmful health consequences when fish are heavily parasitized (Smith and Noga 1992).
Ichthyophthiriosis or “Ich” is caused by the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater or Cryptocaryon irritans in salv spoter. These parasites cause raised, white lesions visible on the skin and gill (commonly called “white spot disease”) and can cause high mortalities in a population of fish. The parasite burrows into skin and gill tissue (figure 1), resulting in osmotic stress and allowing secondary bacterial and fungal infections to become established at the site of penetration. The life cycle of the parasite can be completed in a short time, so light infestations can rapidly progress to severe problems. Because the parasite becomes buried in the tissues of the fish, it is protected from the environment and from the effect of waterborne chemotherapeutic agents."
"Infestations of Trichodina sp. and Chilodonella sp. in striped bass may cause skin ulceration as well as fin and gill erosion. If these ciliated parasites are present in large numbers, their feeding activity on the surface of the fish can compromise the integrity of the tissues. This often results in osmotic stress and secondary bacterial and fungal infections.
Another ciliated protozoan parasite that commonly causes problems in cultured striped bass is Epistylis sp. (figure 2). This stalked parasite attaches to the skin, fins, or gills of the fish and feeds on suspended material in the water column. The parasite causes irritation and inflammation at the site of attachment, resulting in tissue erosion and secondary infections. The disease caused by this parasite is often called “red sore disease” due to the multiple small, red hemorrhages on the skin. Large numbers of these parasites can also completely cover the gill tissues, reducing oxygen uptake across the gill surface.
Other protozoan parasites of striped bass are Tetrahymena sp. and Uronema sp. These freshwater and marine parasites, respectively, can burrow directly through intact skin (figure 3) and migrate to various internal organs. Tissues often have a significant inflammatory reaction, and the normal function of the affected organ can be severely disrupted."
"chthyobodo sp. are very small tear-shaped flagellated parasites that attach to skin or gill tissue and gain nutrients from the host. Severe infestations and mortalities are often associated with high organic loads in the water and poor husbandry.
The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum affects striped bass in brackish and salv spoter. This parasite, often called “rust” or “velvet,” can be found on skin and gill tissue where it appears as small, white-to-reddish spots. Heavy infestations can result in acute mortality due to anoxia and osmotic stress.
Monogeneans are a common external parasite of the skin, fins, or gills of striped bass. These flatworms can cause local irritation at the site of attachment, leading to severe problems when present in high numbers. The presence of these external parasites in a fish population often indicates poor husbandry.
Multiple species of larval digenetic trematodes can invade striped bass tissues (figure 4). The larval stage of Clinostomum sp., known as the “yellow grub,” generally encysts in the muscle of the fish. The developing parasite may be readily visible, making the fillet commercially undesirable. The life cycle of these digenetic trematodes includes two additional hosts, generally snails and birds. Removal of one of these hosts will interrupt the life cycle of the trematode and eliminate this parasite problem.
Motile aeromonas septicemia is caused by multiple Aeromonas species. Because these bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment, fish can be at risk of disease at any time. Lesions from this type of infection can include hemorrhage and necrosis of the skin, fins, and internal organs.
Flavobacterium spp. can cause skin and gill lesions on striped bass and their hybrids. A commonly encountered disease is “columnaris,” caused by F. columnaris. This pathogen generally causes problems of the skin, fins, and gills, resulting in pale, ulcerative, necrotic lesions. These lesions are often accompanied by secondary fungal infections. Another bacteria of this group, F. branchiophila, can cause “bacterial gill disease,” resulting in thickening of the gill tissue and hindering oxygen exchange and osmoregulation (Bullock 1990).
Infection with aquatic Mycobacterium spp. can result in a chronic disease in cultured striped bass and their hybrids. Affected fish can exhibit various clinical lesions, including skin ulcerations and erosions, abdominal distention, anorexia (“off feed”) and a generalized chronic wasting syndrome (figure 5). Granulomas can form in various organs, destroying normal tissues and disrupting organ functions (figure 6). Infected fish are unsuitable for human consumption. In addition, aquatic species of mycobacteria can be zoonotic pathogens, i.e., capable of causing disease in humans. Thus, destruction of all infected and exposed fish is generally recommended.
Streptococcus iniae can be a serious pathogen of striped bass and other species of fish, most notably tilapia (Shoemaker, Klesius, and Evans 2001). This pathogen causes inflammation of the brain and abdominal cavity as well as necrosis of the liver, spleen, and kidney. The disease can spread quickly through a production facility, and result in high mortalities. This bacterial pathogen is a zoonotic organism.
Edwardsiella tarda occasionally affects striped bass, causing ulcerations and abcesses of the skin, muscle, and internal organs. Often an unpleasant smell accompanies the lesions. This pathogen is also a zoonotic organism and can produce gastrointestinal infection in humans.
Vibriosis is caused by various Vibrio spp. and generally affects fish in brackish and marine environments. Fish become lethargic and develop hemorrhagic, ulcerative lesions on the skin, fins, gills, and eyes. The abdominal cavity often contains bloody fluid from hemorrhagic lesions in the internal organs. Pathogenicity depends on the Vibrio sp. encountered, and mortality rates appear to be influenced by environmental conditions.
The pathogen Photobacterium damsela subspecies piscicida is responsible for “pseudotuberculosis” in striped bass raised in brackish or marine water. Fish become discolored, anorexic, and may develop nodular and hemorrhagic lesions in internal organs. Outbreaks of this disease appear to be closely linked to poor husbandry conditions.
Although there are no known viruses that are specifically pathogenic to striped bass or hybrid striped bass, three viral diseases have been described. These viruses can be factors in the overall decline in fish health, making populations more susceptible to other opportunistic infections.
Lymphocystis has been reported in striped bass, although the incidence appears to be infrequent (Krantz 1970). This viral disease does not cause severe pathology or death, but it produces small, raised, nodular lesions on the skin and fins. Fish heal after sloughing infected cells, but the virus released from these cells serves as infectious material that can transmit the disease to other fish. Therefore, affected fish populations should be quarantined to prevent the spread of this disease to susceptible fish.
Striped bass have been reported with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Clinical signs were limited to darkened pigmentation (Schutz et al. 1984). While the ability of the virus to cause mortality is questionable, IPNV can be transmitted from infected striped bass to other susceptible fish species (McAllister and McAllister 1988). This should be taken into account when undertaking polyculture or stocking striped bass into waters with other susceptible species.
The striped bass aquareovirus can cause hemorrhagic lesions of the skin and swim bladder and enlargement of the liver. However, this virus has not been reported to cause mortality (Baya et al. 1990).
Several species of fungi cause infections in striped bass and hybrid striped bass, though only three species are generally considered important.
Saprolegniosis is a fungal disease of fish and fish eggs that is caused by a variety of opportunistic pathogens, including Saprolegnia sp. and Aphanomyces sp. Infections of the skin, fins, or gills occur when fish are debilitated (e.g., injured, diseased, malnourished, environmentally stressed). The pathogen appears on external surfaces as white-to-brown tufts of cottony growth, which are formed by fungal mycelium that grow on fish. Saprolegnia sp. often causes superficial lesions (figure 7), while Aphanomyces sp. usually cause deeper ulcerative lesions that extend into the muscle (Plumb 1997). Because these fungi are usually opportunistic pathogens, saprolegniosis is commonly associated with bacterial or parasitic infections (Bruno and Wood 1999).
Branchiomyces sp. can infect striped bass, causing “gill rot” (Meyer and Robinson 1973). This disease is generally associated with the culture of fingerlings in water with high temperatures or high organic content. Fungal hyphae invade the tissues of the gill and affected gills become necrotic, leading to impaired oxygen exchange and osmoregulatory deficiency.
Diets high in lipid content have been linked to hepatic lipidosis or “fatty liver syndrome,” which may lead to other metabolic problems. Gas supersaturation in fish can result from using water obtained from deep groundwater sources, water with temperature extremes, or recirculated water with air leaks in intake pipes. Supersaturation can cause air bubbles in the skin, fins, and gills, leading to tissue necrosis and chronic stress. Soft water can cause problems in the fish as a result of osmoregulatory imbalance. Morbidity has occurred in striped bass at a water hardness (as calcium carbonate/CaCO3) below 20 parts per million (ppm), and mortalities have occurred with a hardness below 5 ppm (Mitchell 1989). Water hardness between 150-200 ppm is recommended for striped bass and its hybrids.
Disease Prevention and Control
Any culture facility should have biosecurity measures in place to prevent the introduction, establishment, or spread of infectious diseases. Pathogens are transmitted among fish through water, feed, fish, equipment, and people. Therefore, water should be treated (e.g., ultraviolet light, ozonation, and/or EPA-approved chemicals) and feed should be purchased from reputable dealers and properly stored. Any fish brought into a facility should be quarantined, tanks should be cleaned and disinfected after removal of a population, and equipment should be disinfected after use. Biosecurity measures for personnel should also be established, using footbaths, protective clothing, and standard operating procedures."
What needs to be looked at:
Ichthyophthiriosis; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater or Cryptocaryon irritans in salt water.
"2003 came a few to a few reports from southern Germany and Switzerland, reported in those of white spot disease, was the self was not treated with high doses of known drugs.
The problem with "new tribe" is that nobody knows exactly what it is. There are statements of "this is something completely different" to "looks just like White Spot". Ultimately, there is the possibility that there is a strain of White Spot or something completely new. Do not know exactly no one.
The focus here is less on the scheme are more than on the treatment of this parasite, and that is the problem: Almost every known treatment is not effective:
The following treatment methods have proven to be ineffective:
- Malachitgrünoxalat - Methylene blue - Acriflavine - Formalin - Copper sulfate and chloride - Salt treatment, all tested in high doses over! - Heat to 34 ° C!
No known treatment recommendation affects any remedy offered by the pet shops seem to be ineffective."
"Infections can be extremely difficult to treat because of other creatures, such as corals and other invertebrates, which will not survive standard treatments. Ideally fish with Cryptocaryon are quarantined in a hospital tank, where they can be treated with a copper salt or using hyposalinity. The display tank needs to be kept clear of fish for 6-9 weeks, the longer the better. This gives time for the encysted tomonts to release infectious theronts, which die within 24-48 hours when they cannot find a host. Cryptocaryon irritans was originally classified as Ichthyophthirius marinus, but it is not closely related to the other species. It belongs to the class Prostomatea, but beyond that its placement is still uncertain.
Useful treatments of Cryptocaryon irritans are copper solutions, formalin solutions, and quinine based drugs (such as Chloroquine Phosphate and Quinine Diphosphate)."
Once the fish has been definitively diagnosed with Cryptocaryon there are a few different methods that can be utilized to eradicate the parasite Treatment should occur as soon as detected as the parasite can reproduce very quickly, infecting other fish within the aquarium.
The infective "theront" stage of the Cryptocaryon lifecycle is quite susceptible to reduced salinity allowing euryhaline (wide salinity range) fish to be treated easily. Decreasing the aquarium salinity to 16 parts per thousand (ppt) or below can halt the spread of the parasite. Keeping the salinity at this level for at least 3 full lifecycles of the parasite (each life cycle being anywhere from 6 - 15 days at 24 degrees Celsius) will help in the removal of most trophonts from the host. Once the salinity is increased to above 20ppt, any remaining trophonts on the fish are able to then resume the lifecycle if conditions within the aquaria favor another outbreak. Many stenohaline (narrow salinity range) fish will tolerate an indefinite salinity of 16ppt. but some may become aggressive or hyperactive. Most invertebrates will not tolerate a significant lowering of salinity for any duration.
Dipping in freshwater to remove the trophont stage from the fish is only usually partially successful. Smaller trophonts can be protected from the osmotic shock of the reduced salinity by being under the epithelium layer and mucus of the fish, therefore only larger trophonts which have grown through the epithelium are lysed by the freshwater. Freshwater dips are also very stressful on the fish and therefore can be counterproductive to treatment.
As Cryptocaryon is pathogenic at temperatures between 20°C and 30°C, lowering the temperature below 19°C will stop reproduction. This method is very unpractical however, and most tropical fish will not tolerate the drop in temperature. If dealing with temperate species, maintaining the aquarium at less than 19°C is a method of control that is least stressful for the inhabitants.
Chemical treatments work by killing one or more stages of a disease's lifecycle. Many parasites such as Cryptocaryon are very resistant to most chemicals while attached to the host (trophont stage), or undergoing cell division on the aquarium substrate (tomont stage). Luckily the infective theronts (free swimming stage that hunts down the fish host) are susceptible to a number of chemicals (see below) and can be killed quite easily.
Copper has been used historically to treat Cryptocaryon outbreaks, but is not advisable in the author's opinion for many reasons. Firstly it is an immuno-suppressant and toxic to gill tissue, causing the fish's usually already decreased immune system to become further reduced. This most likely leads to secondary infections from opportunistic bacteria and viruses that may be living within the aquarium. Secondly copper has a very low therapeutic level, allowing very easy overdosing of the animals. Thirdly, there are a lot of fish that cannot tolerate the levels of copper in the water that is needed to kill the theronts. Species such as sygnathids (seahorses and pipefish), mandarin fish, elasmobranches (sharks and rays), various wrasse, butterfly, and clownfish species, banggai cardinals, and firefish to name a few are considered to be sensitive. All invertebrates (corals, anemones, crabs, snails, sponges etc.) are also considered to be copper sensitive, and will not tolerate any addition of copper to the system. Fourthly, copper can come out of suspension and 'plate' objects such as piping, aquarium glass, and pumps. Even once all the copper has been removed, the 'plated' object can 'leach' copper back into the aquarium, causing mortalities in invertebrates that have been newly added.
Quinine based medication (Chloroquine phosphate and Quinine hydrochloride) have been used with great success to treat Cryptocaryon outbreaks. Quinine is an anti-protozoal drug used mainly in the human treatment of malaria (also a protozoan). The quinine kills the theronts stage of the parasite on excystment from the tomont thus stopping re-infection of new fish. It is non-toxic to most fish at the correct dose rate (5-10mg/l) but it is highly toxic to micro- and macroalgae, and to some invertebrates (anemones, corals etc.). It is also non-toxic to bacteria, therefore not affecting the beneficial aerobic and anaerobic bacteria within the aquariums biological filter. Being a human medication, quinine is relatively expensive, and needs to be purchased through a qualified medical practitioner within Australia (either doctor or vet).
Formalin (which is an aqueous solution of 37 to 40% formaldehyde gas) has been used to treat a variety of fish diseases including protozoal ectoparasites, monogenean worms, and water moulds on eggs with mixed success. It is, however, both volatile and irritating, and has caused cancer in lab rodents. Formalin works by interrupting tomont division and is also lethal to theronts. It also has moderate antibacterial properties thus it inhibits biological filtration. As well as being irritating to the gills, it has algaecidal properties (Schnick, 1973) therefore having the potential to further reduce oxygen levels. Because of this, if formalin treatment is going to be used, it is strongly recommended to heavily aerate the water. Some fish are also susceptible to formalin so levels should be increased slowly and fish behavior observed.
Using herbal remedies such as garlic and onion to treat diseases has become increasingly common. Unfortunately there is no evidence that suggests that these are effective in the treatment of Cryptocaryon and may be even detrimental to the fish's health if overdosed. Garlic extract - allium satiyum - has however been proven to kill freshwater white spot lchthyophthirius rnultifiliis at the theront stage after 15 hours, as well as controlling monogenean flatworm infestations, while onion is useful for treating parasitic copepods.
Ideally the best method of treatment of any disease is by quarantining and probiotic measures. By quarantining any new fish in a separate aquarium for a minimum of 21 days at 24 degrees (some reports recommend even a 6 week quarantine period) and treating as if they were infected by a suitable proven method of control is the only way to be sure that the fish is free from the parasite. Once they have been introduced into the main aquarium, using probiotics such as spirulina to promote the fishes own immune system is advised. It is also beneficial to enrich foods with essential compounds such as omega 3 oils, lipids, protein and pigments, ensuring that you are providing your fish with the highest nutrition and therefore best possible means of fighting off any infection."
Anglers suspect red spot disease has returned to the Myall Lakes, triggering renewed concerns about the estuary system’s health. Fishermen have reported a rising number of fish with red lesions resembling red spot disease in recent months. ‘‘I’ve seen at least six cases in the last month,’’...
Feb 19, 2010 Caption: Pollution caused by large-scale flower farming has been wrecking havoc on the Lake which is the only fresh water ecosystem in the eastern. Thousands of fish in Lake Naivasha have died in the last two days raising fears among fishermen and locals. Part of the lake has been covered by the decaying fish as a heavy odour filters across the..."
tash: Hi skizit, I have watched all your videos on youtube and cant thank you enough for all you have educated me on. I cry for you alot and a bit for me. I was wanting to send you photos of what is raining down everyday here in Australia in hope you can tell me
Dec 11, 2019 23:28:22 GMT -5
tash: not sure where to send them as hush mail and rocket mail bounced back
Dec 11, 2019 23:30:03 GMT -5